Many kind of societies ostensibly “at peace” are far from peaceful, yet experience endemic violence. A brand-new toolkit of solutions is needed to return violence to its previous trajectory of decrease.

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Hard as this is to believe, we live in among the most relaxed durations of humale background.1 Homicides have actually been falling in many parts of the world for centuries.2 In spite of the horrors beamed across the internet, violent deaths from wars between states are at historic lows.3 Civil war deaths have actually increased in recent years owing to the conflicts principally in Afghanistan, South Sudan, Syria, and also Yemales, however they had fallen so much because the end of the Cold War that they are still a portion (in per capita terms) of what they were at any time before.4 After increasing for a decade and also a half, even violent extremist–associated fatalities are on the decrease.5

Rachel Kleinfeld
Rachel Kleinfeld is a senior fellow in the Democracy, Conflict, and also Governance Program, where she focuses on issues of dominance of regulation, protection, and also administration in post-dispute countries, vulnerable claims, and states in shift.
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These comparatively recent renovations in tranquility and security did not happen spontaneously. The finish of the Cold War offered them an increase, however they were chiefly achieved by concerted investment in plans designed to prevent and also reduce warfare and terrorism. Sharp reductions in violent crime were likewise due in part to investments in smarter policing and also prevention.

But tright here is a darker side to the story.6 Many societies ostensibly “at peace” are far from relaxed. Several of them are suffering endemic violence that exceed fatality prices in warfare. These instances can just be improved through much better high quality governance, fairly than typical tranquility agreements and peacekeepers. Almany nine out of ten violent deaths across the human being this day take place inside nations and also cities that are not at battle in the conventional sense.7 Criminal violence perpetrated by drug cartels, gangs, and mafia teams is skyrocketing, especially in Latin Amerihave the right to and the Caribbean, bring about international homicides to creep up again.8 At the same time, state protection forces are continuing to deploy mass violence and extreme pressure against their very own civilization.9

Robert Muggah
Robert Muggah is the director of study at the Igarapé Institute, a think tank functioning on data-moved safety and security and justice across Latin America and Africa, that he co-started in 2011.

These two kinds of violence—arranged crime and state repression—are even more linked than is generally assumed. Politicians, police, judges, and also customizeds officials frequently corun via cartel bosses and also gangs in the search of profit and power. Both are experienced at hiding their violent acts such that they often are not tape-recorded in worldwide datasets on lethal and also nonlethal violence. Yet it is feasible that such violence may be contributing to a jump in in its entirety violent deaths international. Such violence is tough to disrupt.

These difficulties are not confined to negative, “failed,” or “fragile” says. Compare the roughly thirty fragile says detailed by the World Bank to the fifty most violent countries in the world, and also just 4 appear in both compilations. It is middle-earnings countries that are quick coming to be the world’s the majority of violent locations.10 Relatively affluent South Africa has actually a violent death rate almost double that of war-torn South Sudan.11 In 2018, even more civilians were eliminated by state and also paraarmed forces pressures in the Philippines than in Iraq, Somalia, or the Democratic Republic of the Congo—as many as in Afghanistan.12 Of the fifty a lot of violent cities in the world in 2017 (based upon murder prices per 100,000), fifteenager are in Mexico, fourteenager are in Brazil, and four are in the USA.13 Inehigh quality, not poverty, is strongly associated with murder—and also inehigh quality regularly rises as poverty drops.14

The global area has few devices to address the twin challenges of state and also criminal violence. Timeless tranquility treaties and the deployment of blue-helmeted peacekeepers are not fit for objective. Development establishments have a function to play in reducing criminal violence—however it need to be an explicit focus, since steps to minimize poverty don’t influence violence per se.15 In fact, efforts to reinpressure state capacity can make violence also worse by propping up governments complicit in the problem. When politicians are unable or unwilling to stem violence, international leverage is frequently limited, since governments deserve to sanction worldwide institutions and also agencies or evict their staff. A brand-new toolkit of services is required to rerotate violence to its previous trajectory of decline.

War and also Terrorism—Changing Threats

War has actually always made up an existential danger to humanity. The civilization-ending potential of armed conflict reached its apogee in the twentieth century. Then, in the late 1940s, somepoint impressive began happening. The incidence and severity of cross-border and civil wars began to loss.16 Half a century later, after the Cold War had ended, the variety of battles got in free fall, with many kind of petering out as the USA and also Russia withdrew support for completing sides. By 2018, direct deaths from civil and interstate battles had dropped to fewer than 53,000 a year.17 (Instraight deaths led to by dispute, such as raised disease and also malnutrition, reprimary higher.18)

The hazard of warfare is reemerging as U.S. hegemony weakens and geopolitical rivalries rerotate, fueling neighborhood proxy conflicts such as those in Iraq, Syria, and also Yemales. While the deadliness of today’s wars continues to be historically low, there are nevertheless twice as many type of civil disputes now as there were in 2001. It is a tiny uptick after a long decline, however it is a disturbing trend.19

Armed problems this day are harder to extinguish bereason of three parallel patterns. First, while old-style interstate battles are currently vanishingly rare, the term “civil war” have the right to be a misnomer. Of the fifty-two present intra-state conflicts counted by the Peace Research Institute of Oslo (PRIO), exterior states were sfinishing troops to at leastern one side in eighteenager of them.20 These conflicts sustained by external states are mostly even more violent, longer lasting, and a lot harder to solve than traditional civil battles.21 (For even more, view the essay by Mary Kaldor in this arsenal.)

2nd, the variety of nonstate armed groups participating in the bloodshed is multiplying. According to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), approximately fifty percent of today’s battles involve between three and nine opposing teams.22 In a handful, consisting of the continuous conflicts in Libya and also Syria, literally numerous equipped teams are fighting one one more. Wars are harder to finish as soon as so many type of teams deserve to spoil the tranquility. Third, today’s warriors are as likely to be affiliated with drug cartels, mafia teams, and also criminal gangs as through militaries or organized rebel factions. In a globalized world through very connected supply chains, they regularly act as all of the over. The Taliban is a rebel team fighting for political manage of Afghanistan. It is likewise a drug cartel fighting criminalized sections of the Afghan government for manage over residential and local smuggling routes.23 Politicians, businessguys, and fighters that profit from recurring war make negotiated peace more complicated, and also in some instances impossible.

These trends are compounded by a long-ignored truth. Many kind of citizens suffering under predatory federal governments have actually no automatic loyalty to the state. Rebel groups, terrorist insurgents, cartels, and gangs properly lobby for legitimacy and public support—not simply via hazards, yet with slick digital videos and social media persuasion campaigns.

For a lot of the twentieth century, terrorism was regarded as a lower-order issue by most federal governments. The September 11 al-Qaeda-led assaults on the United States catapulted terror to the peak of the international agenda. Incidents of terrorism spiked for even more than a decade. But given that 2014, the number of assaults has actually fallen by as a lot as 44 percent.24 North Americans and Europeans still feel that they are on the frontlines of terror, yet according to the Global Terrorism Index, white nationalist teams pose a greater hazard to UNITED STATE citizens than political Islamist groups.25 As gruesome attacks in Brussels, Manchester, and also Paris, suggest, Western Europe does challenge a higher terrorist risk. Yet in 2017, just 2 percent of all terrorist-related strikes developed in Europe. Across the continent, the probcapability of dying at the hands of a terrorist was 0.027 per 100,000—slightly less likely than being hit by lightning.26

The geographical locus of extremist violence has transformed. Just salso countries account for 90 percent of all terrorist attacks and connected deaths: Afghanistan, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria, and Yeguys.27 Perpetrators are also concentrated in a couple of conflict zones. More than 10,000 of the approximately 19,000 terrorist killings in 2017 were perpetrated by just four groups: the self-proasserted Islamic State, the Taliban, al-Shabaab, and Boko Haram.28 Over the past decade, they have actually been responsible for close to fifty percent of all terrorist-related deaths. Terrorism this day serves mainly as a battle tactic within irconsistent war in the emerging people.

The natural vulnercapacity of soft targets will always allow people through the will certainly and suggests to sow terror. But the focus of Western security policy should correspond even more closely with the actual—quite than the perceived—danger. In specific, attention need to focus on the potential of assaults via biological and also chemical tools, a hazard that has come to be plausible aacquire after their recurring usage in the Syrian battle.29

Within the nations hardest hit, the just coherent approach of terror avoidance in the lengthy run is to resolve the determinants that give rise to it in the initially location. Terror is a tactic of war, yet it is a product of inequitable administration and political and also social exclusion. Feelings of inequality, marginalization, and indignity feed anger and resentment. In addition, it is often state violence that sets this tinder alight. According to a UN study interviewing violent extremists throughout North Africa, violent state repression transformed grievances into terrorist violence in 71 percent of the instances.30

Rising State Violence

Ever considering that contemporary nation-says burst onto the scene in the seventeenth century, they have violently managed their populaces. The practice of offering states a pass on coercion within their boundaries was codified in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648, which ended the apocalyptic bloodmelted of the Thirty Years’ War in Europe. In the lengthy run, the cure turned out to be more deadly than the disease, yet. R. J. Rummel estimated that in the twentieth century, 262 million civilization were killed by their very own governments—6 times more than in all global and also civil wars developing in that duration.31 In China, the Soviet Union, and also other Communist, totalitarian says such as Cambodia, in between 85 and 110 million people were killed by their very own federal governments.32

Tear gas, and plastic pellet gunshot used by Venezuela’s National Police against a protest in Altamira, Caracas. (Andrés E. Azpúrua)

After the fall of Communism, humanitarians argued that state repression could no longer be tolerated under the rubric of nationwide sovereignty and also noninterference. Many claims perpetrating violence versus their citizens were no longer near-peer rivals, but weaker federal governments more at risk to Western strong-arming. Rwanda’s genocide of 1994, in which possibly 800,000 human being were eliminated in a hundred days, was so horrific that a new norm, the “obligation to safeguard,” sanctioning international interference in situations of mass violence, won widespcheck out assistance.33

Yet, despite the brand-new worldwide norm of protection, state violence has actually ongoing. North Korea is holding between 70,000 and also 130,000 human being in concentration camps reputed by a Holocaust survivor to be as negative as those of Nazi Germany kind of.34 In Brazil, police committed even more than 6,100 killings in 2018 (more than one of eextremely nine violent deaths in the country)—and one of the legislators that condoned this violence is now president.35 Amnesty Internationwide uncovered that between 2009 and 2015, Nigeria’s armed forces starved or tortured to death at least 7,000 Nigerians, killed 1,200 more in extrajudicial executions, and imprisoned 20,000.36

Today, state killings are potentially among the largest resources of violence versus civilians—although with data so conveniently concealed and manipulated, it is hard to be certain. Undoubtedly, few nations collect or centralize statistics on victims of state violence, a lot less make them available to the public. At the exact same time, brand-new, digitally permitted develops of state manage are arising, many notably China’s practices of preemptive imprisonment and also super-charged monitoring, employed the majority of thoapproximately versus its Muslim Uyghur minority.

While China’s surveillance state hints at the future, Venezuela embodies state violence this day. Venezuela has actually one of the greatest murder rates in the human being, a grim record that at initially glance shows up to be the result of murderous criminals taking advantage of a practically failed state.37 In fact, Venezuelan drug trafficking is well arranged and regulated by the federal government itself.38 The a lot of virulent develop of violence this day is the outcome of such partnerships in between states, their protection pressures, and paramilitaries and also organized criminals.

The Sinister Expansion of Organized Crime

Organized criminal violence has grvery own in essentially eexceptionally part of the civilization in current years, whether it be drug cartel violence in Mexico, reprisal killings among pastoralists and herders in Nigeria,39 gangland also murders in El Salvador,40 or brutality by election-project thugs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.41 The acts of bloodburned these violent actors commit are often flagrant and deliberately gory so regarding sfinish a message to their rivals. Many type of areas are so deadly that they face war in all yet name.

True, arranged crime often tends to action into the breach where a federal government is unable or unwilling to carry out basic protection and also justice. Yet this type of organized crime flourishes more regularly once a state is not weak, yet collusive. Such “privilege violence” occurs as soon as politicians and also security pressures allow mafias, cartels, and gangs impunity, in exadjust for campaign contributions, bribes, and also aid obtaining out the vote or repushing opposing electoprices.42

The exadjust permits these political elites to reap the fruits of corruption, privilege, and perks, while ceding sections of their territory to control by violent criminals.43 In some Mexideserve to communities, parallel governments written of criminalized political and governmental frameworks wield real regulate from behind the scenes. In Brazil, big portions of some of the country’s greatest cities are under the manage of competing drug trafficking factions and militias. In some places, criminals and political leaders merge and become one and the exact same. From Latin America to India, violent criminals have got electoral office, while others look for to affect elections via buying and also offering votes.44

To permit their violent compatriots impunity, politicians politicize and deliberately undermine their defense services. Criminalized police fight via gangs and also cartels not over regulation and order, however over control of turf and illegal proceeds. Ordinary citizens are required to pick sides. Stuck between massive criminal violence and also a predatory, criminalized state that has a tendency to prey on the marginalized, populaces end up being polarized, and vulnerable regimes gain even more brittle. These so-called crime battles hence corrode democracy.45

Poorer neighborhoods are left to protect themselves. Tbelow is a tight correlation between people’s perception of inprotection and exposure to victimization and their most likely support for extralegal procedures to reclaim law and also order. Wbelow personal security is too expensive and unaccessible, people tend to revolve to vigilantes, gangs, and mafias that market security against the predatory state and also various other violent groups—for a price. The cocktail of components driving terrorism—marginalization, exemption, and repression—have the right to similarly compel young males to sign up with criminal gangs. Finally, as impunity grows, ordinary human being turn to violence. A significant percent of murder emerges from bar fights and also disputes between next-door neighbors fairly than expert criminals.46

The occurring mayhem enables politicians to posture as being difficult on crime through repressive or militarized policing. Many citizens, tired by crime and violence, are quickly seduced by straightforward assures of legislation and order. These so-referred to as mano dura tactics tfinish to win elections.47 They are likewise, often unintentionally, emboldened by international defense assistance and devices. But these plans supercharge criminal groups. Zero-tolerance legislations condemn many kind of young men to life in jail, where they learn from each various other.48 Criminals respond to brutal policing via also even more violence.49

The outcome is a self-reinforcing cycle of violence among criminal groups, the state, and also continuous human being. Since 2015, Brazil has observed even more violent deaths than in Syria.50 Over the last fifteen years, Mexico has proficient even more violent deaths than Iraq or Afghanistan.51 Public authorities there estimate that 40 percent of the country is subject to chronic indefense with disappearances and also populace displacement at all-time highs.52

Fighting State Violence and Crime

The confluence of state repression and also organized crime constitutes a wicked problem. Venezuela (and its patrons) is not going to authorize United Nations peacekeepers to patrol the roadways of Caracas. China and Russia are not about to permit global observers to monitor their repression. Questions of noninterference and state sovereignty loom huge. A new toolkit deserve to aid to fight state violence and also crime. These devices might also help in addressing modern creates of splintered, semi-criminalized warfare, and also the terrorism emanating from bad governance and state repression.

As a start, the United Nations, World Bank, and also various other multilateral institutions must come to be less risk-averse and also savvier in engaging via states that purposefully brutalize their citizens, govern inequitably, or companion via criminals.

The experience of states, or substate federal governments that are willing to improve, shows an excellent deal around policing recreates and other security enhancements that have the right to mitigate violence.53 Disrupting today’s violence, but, likewise needs reducing political, social, and financial inetop quality and structure inclusive decisionmaking mechanisms throughout separated cultures.54 Reversing high levels of gender inetop quality and gender-based violence have the right to decrease vulnercapability to civil war and interstate war.55 Countries that offer even more avenues for political and financial participation and encourage social mobility likewise tend to suffer much less violence.56

When the trouble is a governing system that depends on violence to sustain inequity, straightforward remedies to boost inclusiveness will fulfill resistance, yet. Technical solutions premised on strengthening a weak but well-intentioned federal government won’t work. Some bolder and smarter initiatives to deal with these worries of will certainly are already under way. For instance, the World Bank has actually a regime to make security sector budgeting more transparent. Corruption is now receiving higher global scrutiny from public and also personal investors afavor. More job-related is essential to rebalance lending methods, consisting of by spending much less on technical programs that gloss over the underlying trouble and more on initiatives that tackle the elites profiting from the standing quo. 57

Internationwide and intergovernpsychological establishments are restricted in their capability to affect residential national politics, both by internal legal constraints and bereason they count on the permission of federal governments to run. These interventions from external are likewise not a permanent solution: a social contract needs to exist in between a state and also its world, not a government and also external powers. The duty of global actors must constantly be focused on empowering energetic citizens (and citizenship), while incentivizing says to listen to their very own world. Changing the relationship in between a state and its citizens is what eventually reduces state violence and arranged crime. Repressive states and also arranged crime thrive once societies are separated and fragmented.

Success comes generally from helping the middle class build social momentum for political and financial adjust. Donors have the right to money regional institutions that have the right to spread trusted indevelopment while preventing partisan pitfalls; deserve to bring citizens together across polarized, separated countries; and have the right to assistance a cost-free media and also investigative journalists that indevelop people about what their government is approximately. Information alone, but, deserve to simply anger and depush populaces that absence a method to pressure readjust. Knowledge need to be paired via mechanisms to enforce accountcapacity.

To alleviate chronic levels of violence, external actors—consisting of public and also personal donors—should fight to defend civil society, totally free speech, and also legal rights to assembly and opplace voices. In many kind of countries, opposition efforts rely on local businesses willing to money advocacy that would construct a much more simply state.58 Outside funders that can’t as necessary or legally money advocacy can targain assist towards building a middle course and a personal sector that can be independent of the federal government, not reliant on government largesse.

To ease the route of active citizens, worldwide actors need to also stop doing injury. Donor capital deserve to prop up predatory governments so that they do not must heed the wishes of their populations. Wbelow corrupt politicians are fueling the violence they insurance claim to be fighting, foreign federal governments must withhold protection assist fairly than waste taxpayer dollars. Central America’s gangs metastasized when the United States deported gang members from Los Angeles via no support for integrating them right into countries they had actually left as toddlers. The USA proceeds to repeat that mistake now.59

The exclusive and also social sectors play a crucial, if frequently underappreciated, function. Internationwide financial hubs such as Dubai, London, New York, Shanghai, and also Singapore have to tighten the regulations of financial devices and also building markets that enable criminals and also politicians to launder ill-gained gains.60 Academic institutions could follow the lead of Magnitskies Act and also Global Magnitskies Act sanctions and deny admission to the youngsters of leaders guilty of gross human rights violations and corruption.

Finally, even more research is necessary right into diplomacy and mediation among criminal groups and also between governments and also criminals. El Salvador’s well known gang truce of 2012 ended in faitempt.61 But, in Los Angeles, violence has not rebounded after a thirty-year truce modeled on the Middle East peace process helped finish violent reprisals in the 1990s.62 These negotiations are often trick and are rarely also evident to anyone various other than the political leaders and criminals themselves. Very little bit is known around the scenarios that allow some to succeed, while others reason only more bloodshed. Gaining a much better expertise could aid resolve not only criminal violence but also criminal actors within contemporary warfare.63

The problem of violent predatory federal governments won’t be permanently fixed by agreements such as these. In fact, they have the right to make a governing order also much less legitimate. But they can buy time, creating the breathing room necessary to reconstruct the social contract between a state and also its citizens. While working to improve interior governance, other procedures are needed to tackle urgent difficulties that cross borders. Refugee legislation requirements updating to assist those trying to conserve themselves. Millions are trying to escape the criminal violence of Central and Latin America, just as refugees have fled the wartime violence of Syria. The difference is that those seeking succor from crime are regularly stuck in legal limbo after being refused asylum in third nations.64 In otherwise calm countries across Europe and also in the USA, populism is climbing on the backs of migrants fleeing bloodburned, regularly not led to by battle.

Finally, data arsenal might not be sexy, but the fight versus all creates of violence additionally requires better statistics and also evaluation. Tbelow is surprisingly bit indevelopment around violence in sub-Saharan Africa, wright here roughly half the claims don’t report homicide numbers, in authoritarian countries wbelow the numbers are more than likely manipulated, and also in locations much less spanned by the English-speaking press (which is primarily used to identify dispute counts).65 Supporting much better information, which would be comparable across battle and also homicide and throughout nations, is necessary to learn wbelow the troubles lie, and also whether interventions are having an impact.

Decades back, in the wake of the Second World War, a huge intellectual, multinational, and bilateral initiative flourished in corralling interstate battle and also reducing civil battle. Collective violence fell around the world. Now it is rising aget, in new creates that are harder to eradicate. According to the World Health Organization, one in six world international is influenced by violence now. It is time for the worldwide community to direct its manifold resources, monetary and intellectual, to upfinishing the trouble of our time: organized crime and criminally violent claims.


1 Stalso Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined (New York: Viking Press, 2011).

2 For homicide statistics, see Manuel Eisner, “Long Term Historical Trends,” Crime and Justice 30 (2003): 83–142; Manuel Eisner, “Modernization, Self-Control, and Lethal Violence: The Long-term Dynamics of European Homicide Rates in Theoretical Perspective,” The British Journal of Criminology 41, no. 4 (September 2001): 618–38; Ted Robert Gurr, “Historical Trends in Violent Crime: A Critical Review of the Evidence,” Crime and Justice 3 (1981): 295–353; and Ted Robert Gurr, “Historical Trends in Violent Crime: Europe and also the USA,” in Violence in America, Volume 1: The History of Crime, ed. Ted Robert Gurr (California: Sage Publications Inc., 1989), 21–54.

3 Human Security Report Project, Human being Security Report 2009/2010: The Caprovides of Peace and also the Shrinking Costs of War (New York: Human Security Report Project, 2011), 21.

4 Nils Petter Gleditsch, et al., “Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research 39, no. 5 (2002): 615–37. See also Håvard Strand, “Oncollection of Armed Conflict: A New List for the Period 1946–2004, With Applications,” under review at Conflict Management and also Peace Science (2006).

5 National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and also Responses to Terrorism (START), “Global Terrorism Database,” 2018,

7 Mirielle Widmer and Irene Pavesi, “Monitoring Trends in Violent Deaths,” Small Arms Survey, no. 59(September 2016): 1–8.

8 Claire McEvoy and Gergely Hideg, Global Violent Deaths 2017: Time to Decide (Geneva: Small Arms Survey, 2017).

9 Of course, the reduction of mass killings from totalitarian says such as the twentieth century slaughters in China, Russia, and Cambodia does not expect state violence ever before disshowed up. In countries such as North Korea and Rwanda, state enforced or state-directed violence ongoing apace.

10 Rachel Kleinfeld and Elena Barham, “Complicit States and also the Governing Strategy of Privilege Violence: When Weakness Is Not the Problem,” Annual Rewatch of Political Science 21 (May 2018): 215–38.

11 According to the UNODC, Brazil’s homicide price is 36 per 100,000, South Sudan’s was 13.9 according to the UNODC in 2012, for a conservative estimate we include to this the estimates of war deaths based on a population of about 10.2 million before the conflict, and also a violent death rate of about 190,000 as a result of battle over the course of 7 years. See Francesco Checchi et al., “Quotes of Crisis-Attributable Mortality in South Sudan, December 2013-April 2018: A Statistical Analysis,” London School of Hygiene and also Tropical Medicine, September 2018,

12 Roudabeh Kishi and also Melissa Pavlik, “ACLED 2018: The Year in Resee,” Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project, January 11, 2019,

13 Consejo Ciudadano Para La Seguridad Pública y La Justicia Penal AC, “Las 50 ciudades más violentas del muncarry out 2018” , Consejo Ciudadano Para La Seguridad Pública y La Justicia Penal AC, The list is restricted to cities of more than 300,000 and does not incorporate war areas.

14 Maia Szalavitz, “The Surpclimbing Factors Driving Murder Rates: Income Inequality and Respect,” Guardian, December 8, 2017,

15 Robert Muggah and Clionadh Raleigh, “Violent Disorder Is on the Rise. Is Inequality to Blame?,” World Economic Forum Agenda, January 4, 2019,

16 Gleditsch et al., “Armed Conflict 1946–2001,” and Strand also, “Oncollection of Armed Conflict.”

17 Therese Petterskid, Stina Hogbladh, and Magnus Oberg, “Organized Violence: 1989-2018 and also Peace Agreements,” Journal of Peace Research 56, no. 4 (2009): 589–603. See additionally Havard Strand et al., “Trends in Armed Conflict, 1946-2018,” ReliefInternet, March 2019,

18 McEvoy and Hideg, Global Violent Deaths 2017, 10.

19 Fiona Terry and Brain McQuinn, “The Roots of Restraint in War,” International Committee of the Red Cross, June 18, 2018,

20 Kendra Dupuy et al., “Trends in Armed Conflict, 1946-2016,” ETH Zürich, June 22, 2017,

21 Erik K. Jenne and Milos Popovic, “Managing Internationalized Civil Wars,” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, September 2017,

22 Terry and also McQuinn, “The Roots of Restraint in War.”

23 Robert Perito, “Afghanistan’s Police: The Weakest Link in Security Sector Recreate,” U.S. Institute of Peace, August 2009, 7.

24 Institute for Economics & Peace, “Global Terrorism Index 2018: Measuring the affect of terrorism,” Institute for Economics & Peace, December 2018,

26 Robert Muggah, “Europe’s Terror Threat Is Real. But Its Cities Are Much Safer Than You Think,” World Economic Forum, June 08, 2017,

27 Institute for Economics & Peace, “Global Terrorism Index 2018,”

28 Ibid.

30 United Nations Advancement Programme (UNDP), “Journey to Extremism in Africa: Drivers, Incentives, and also the Tipping Point for Recruitment,” UNDP, 2017,

31 R. J. Rummel, “Freedom, Democracy, Peace: Power, Democide, and also War,” University of Hawaii,

32 Ibid.

33 See United Nations, “Responsibility to Protect,” United Nations,

34 International Bar Association, “North Korea: Inquiry Finds Kim Jong-un Should Be Investigated and Prosecuted for Crimes Against Humanity,” Internationwide Bar Association, December 12, 2017,

36 “Stars on Their Shoulders, Blood on Their Hands: War Crimes Committed by the Nigerian Military,” Amnesty Internationwide, 2015,

37 Juan Carlos Garzon and Robert Muggah, “Venezuela’s Raging Homicide Epidemic Is Going Untaped,” Los Angeles Times, March 31, 2017,

38 Insight Crime: Venezuela Investigative Unit, “Drug Trafficking Within the Venezuelan Regime: The ‘Cartel of the Suns,’” Insight Crime, May 17, 2018, Illegal gold mining is also under the pursee of the state.

39 Robert Muggah and José Luengo Cabrera, “The Sahel Is Engulfed in Violence. Climate Change, Food Indefense and Extremists Are Largely to Blame,” World Economic Forum Agenda, January 23, 2019,

40 Robert Muggah, “It’s Official: San Salvador is the Murder Capital of the World,” Los Angeles Times, March 2, 2016,

42 Rachel Kleinfeld, A Savage Order: How the World’s Deadliest Countries Can Forge a Path to Security (New York: Pantheon Books, 2018).

43 See Muggah and Raleigh, “Violent Disorder Is on the Rise.”

44 Milan Vaishnav, When Crime Pays (New Haven, Conn. Yale University Press, 2017). See likewise John P. Sullivan, José de Arimatéia da Cruz and also Robert J. Bunker, “Third Generation Gangs Strategic Note No. 9,” Small Wars Journal,

46 Kleinfeld, A Savage Order, 86–96.

47 Robert Muggah, “Reviewing the Costs and Benefits of Mano Dura Versus Crime Prevention in the Americas,” in The Palgrave Handbook of Conshort-lived International Political Economy, ed.Timothy Shaw, Laura Mahrenbach, Renu Modi and also Xu Yi-chong (London: Palgrave, 2018), 465–83.

51 Afghanistan and also Iraq numbers are drawn from the Costs of War Project at the Brown University Watson Institute for Internationwide and Public Affairs, which approximated the fatality toll of the Iraq war (2003–2018) to be from 267,792 to 295,170 and also calculated the death toll of the Afghanistan war (2001–2018) to be 147,124 as of November 2018. By comparikid, according to the Igarape Institute’s homicide monitor (which uses statistics from the Mexideserve to government), tright here were 33,341 homicides in 2018 and 310,834 from 2003 to 2018. See Neta C. Crawford, “Human Cost of the Post-9/11 Wars: Lethality and the Need for Transparency,” Costs of War, November 2018, https://watboy.brvery See alsoIgarapé Institute, Homicide Monitor, V1, spread by Igarapé Institute,

52 Tom Phillips, “Mexico: 40% of Counattempt Is Paralyzed by Violence, Says Chief of Staff,” Guardian, July 10, 2018,

53 Thomas Abt, Bleeding Out: The Devastating Consequences of Urban Violence and also a Bold New Plan for Peace in the Streets (New York: Basic Books, 2019).

54 Facundo Alvareexecute et al., “World Inequality Report 2018: Executive Overview,” World Inehigh quality Lab, 2018,

55 Marianne Dahl, “Global Womales, Peace and also Security,” PRIO, May 2017,

56 Kari Paasonen and also Henrik Urdal, “Youth Bulges, Exclusion and also Instability: The Role of Youth in the Arab Spring,” PRIO, 2016, Opportunities for youth is most likely an interdependent variable, serving as both reason and also effect, in which instance it may be a lagging indicator of a mechanism of governance that is moving away from Privilege Violence.

57 See Robert Muggah and Clionadh Raleigh, “Violent Disorder Is on the Rise.”

58 Leonardo Arriola, Multi-Ethnic Coalitions in Africa: Firm Financing of Opplace Election Campaigns (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

59 Ana Arana, “How the Street Gangs Took Central America,” Fopower Affairs 84, no. 3 (May–June 2005): 98–99.

60 Mattha Busby, “First Ever UK Undescribed Wealth Order Issued,” Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project, March 2, 2018,

61 Sinisa Vukovic and also Eric Rahmale, “The Gang Truce in El Salvador,” Oxford Research Group, April 18, 2018, See also Robert Muggah, Ami Carpenter, and Topher McDougal, “The Inconvenient Truth About Gang Truces in the Americas”, InSight Crime, December 5, 2013,

63 A fascinating example of what works originates from Ecuador, which “legalized gangs” in current years. See David Brotherton and also Rafael Gude, “Social Inclusion From Below: The Perspectives of Street Gangs and Their Possible Effects on Declining Homicide Rates in Ecuador,” IADB, March2018),

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65 Kleinfeld, “Reducing all Violent Deaths, Everywbelow.” See also Alexandra Lysova and Nikolay Shchitov, “What Is Russia’s Real Homicide Rate? Statistical Reconstruction and also the ‘Decivilizing Process,’” Theoretical Criminology 19, no. 2 (2015): 257–77.