The at an early stage Chinese spindle-wheel was initially created in conjunction with silk-modern technology and was attached to silk production, as pictured in some Han stone reliefs. It is concluded that the spindle-wheel is a Chinese Invention which might be dated to the early on years of the Warring States duration. In the course of time world realized the advantages of the spindle-wheel and it was embraced for plant fiber manufacturing.

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The spindle-wheel may have actually been brought to Europe at the very same time as silk-technology was presented, a lot of most likely in the second fifty percent of the initially millenium A.D. Only as soon as the repetitively working spinning-wheel with flyer was designed in fifteenth century Europe did a much better and more effective spinning device become accessible.

, Ts"ung T"ai-hsi-ts"un ch"u-t"u ti Shang-tai cnih-wu ho fang-chih kung-chü t"an tang-shih ti fang-chih” (Notes on the Shang Empire textile finds in the light of the Shang dynasty wrange products and tools unearthed from T"ai-hsi-ts"un in Kao-ch"en county, Hopei province), WW 1979.6.49–53Google ScholarPubMed; Kuhn, Dieter, “Silk Technology in the Sung Period (960-1278 A.D.).” Accepted for publication in TP (1981)Google Scholar.

9. Eizō, Ohta, “Kodai Chūgoku no shokki gijutsu” (The innovation of looms in prehistoric China), Shi-rin 34.1 (1951):63–77Google Scholar; Sasaki Shinzaburō , Ragi shiko (My opinion around gauze technology) Kawashima Orimono Kenkyūsho Hōkoku 4 (Kyōto, 1960); “Nishijin orimono shōsetsu” (Precise explacountries of Nishijin weavings), Nishijin Museum, ed., Nishijin-bi to dento (Kyōto, 1969), pp. 372–381Google ScholarPubMed; Shinzaburō, Sasaki, Shōsōin no ra (Patterned re-weave fabrics in the Shōsōin) (Tokyo, 1971)Google Scholar; Taketoshi, Satō, Chügoku kodai kenshokko butsushi kenkyū (Investigations into the history of primitive Chinese silk fabrics) (Tokyo, 1977)Google Scholar; Junrō, Nunome, Yōsan no kigen to kodaihen (The origin of sericulture) (Tokyo, 1979)Google Scholar.

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12. Hsio-Yen Shih has cited 56 titles of Chinese publications concerning the history of textiles in her short article “Textile Finds in the People"s Republic of China,” in Studies in Textile History, ed. Gervers, Veronika (Toronto, 1977), pp. 305–321Google Scholar. In enhancement tbelow are a couple of titles concerning textile technology: Shih Hung-ta “Shih-lun Sung Yüan Ming san-tai mein-fang-chih sheng-ch"an kung-chü fa-chan-shih kuo-ch"eng” (Discussion of the development of implements and also machinery for the cotton manufacture in Sung, Yüan, and Ming times), Li-shih yen-chiu 1957.3:19–42Google Scholar; Ch"ung-chou, Li “Shih-chieh shang tsui-tsao ti shui-li fang-chi-ch"e ‘shul-chuan ta-fang-ch‘e’” (The world"s oldest water-powered spinning machinery-the great water-driven spinning machine), WW 1959.12:29–30Google Scholar; Po-yin, Sung and also Chung-i, Li, “Ts"ung Han hua-hsiang-shih t"an-so Han-tai chih-chi lou-tsao” (Investigation of the construction of looms in the Han duration based on rock reliefs), WW 1962.3:24–30, 44Google Scholar; Shih, Tuan “Chiang-su T"ung-shan Hung-lou Tung-Han-mu ch"u-t"u fang-shih hua-hsiang-shih” (Eastern Han stone reliefs of looms from Tung-shan, Hung-lou in Kiangsu province), WW 1962.3:31–32Google Scholar; Chao-lin, Sung “Yün-nan Hsi-shuang Pan-na T"ai-tsu ti fang-chih chi-shu; chien t"an ku?tai fang-chih ti chi-ko wen-t"i” (The weaving approaches of the T"ai nationality of Hsi-shuang, Pan-na, Yünnan province and some problems of textile weaving in antiquity), WW 1965.4:6–13Google Scholar; “T"u-lu-fan-hsien A-ssu-t"a-na Ha-la-ho-cho ku-mu ch"un fa-chüeh chien-pao” (Excavations of ancient tombs at Astana and Karakhoja in Turfan, 1963-1965), WW 1972.1:8–29Google Scholar; “Wu-ch"an-chieh-chi wen-hua ta-ko-ming chung ti k"ao-ku hsin-fa-hsien” (New historical finds during the Proletarian Cultural Revolution), KK 1972.1:29–42Google Scholar; Ch"ung-chou, Li, “Wo-kuo ku-tai ti chiao-t"a fang-ch"e” (Our primitive treadle-operated spinning wheel), WW 1977.12:73–75Google Scholar; yen-chiu-so, Tzu-jan k"o-hsüeh-shih, ed., Chung-kuo ku-tai k"o-chi ch"eng-chiu (China"s historical success in scientific research and technology) (Peking, 1978), pp. 362–391, 632–661Google Scholar; yen-chiu-yüan, Shanghai-shih fang-chih k"o-hsüeh ed., Fang-chih shih-hua Discussion on the background of textile technology) (Shanghai, 1978: 2nd ed., Shanghai, 1979)Google Scholar. Of the functions publimelted in Taiwan, I will mention only the articles by Ching-heng, Tsou, publiburned in Ta-Tu tsa-chih 45.5 (1972):235–254Google Scholar; 49.2 (1974): 55-77; and Tan-chiung, T"an, Chung-hua min-chien kung-i t"u-shuo (Illustrations and explanations of Chinese well-known crafts) (Taipei, 1956), pp. 1–33Google Scholar.