L>BSC 2010C Chapter 9 : Respiration notesChapter 9 : RespirationRespiration is a catabolic reactivity that breaks dvery own glucose to release energy ( ATP ). Energy is stored in the cell as ATP or NADH. Glucose + Oxygen -----> Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---------> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O. Aerobic respiration : supplies oxygen.Anaerobic respiration : does not usage oxygen.Aerobic respirationAerobic respiration is separated right into three primary stages:Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle and Electron transport chain.Glycolysis: Glucose ( 6 carbon atoms) is split into 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde phosphate (3 carbon each), then these are turned into pyruvate (3 carbons each). This produces 2 ATP and also 2 NADH. Glycolysis takes area in the cytoplasm.Citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle) The main chemicals are Acetyl CoA (2 carbons), citprice (6C), and oxaloacetate (4C). Diagram. This produces 2 ATP, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2. The citric acid cycle takes location inside the mitochondria, and it produces the CO2 that you breath out.Electron transfer chainThis stage produces a lot of of the energy ( 32 ATP molecules, compared to only 2 ATP for glycolysis and 2 ATP for citric acid cycle). This phase converts the NADH and also FADH2 right into ATP. The electron move chain takes location in the mitochondria.The electron carry chain works as a proton pump: it pumps hydrogen ions (protons) via the membrane, and also just enables them ago through a protein (ATP synthase) which renders ATP. The electron deliver chain supplies oxygen to accept electrons at the finish of the chain (the electrons integrate via hydrogen ions and also oxygen to create water molecules).Summary: the three stages of Aerobic RespirationGlycolysis Citric acid cycleElectron transfer chainCytoplasmMitochondriaMitochondriaBreaks dvery own Glucose to PyruvateTurns Pyruvate into CO2Converts NADH and also FADH2 into ATP2 ATP2 NADH2 ATP6 NADH2 FADH2 32 ATPCatabolism of food Cells deserve to use numerous organic molecules in respiration: not simply glucose.Carbohydprices are damaged down using all 3 steras of respiration (glycolysis, citric acid cycle and also the electron transport chain).Lipids are damaged dvery own to glyceraldehyde, so they go via part of glycolysis, then the citric acid cycle and also the electron move chain.Proteins are deaminated (the amino team is removed), and also then converted in Acetyl CoA, which is offered in the citric acid cycle, and also then the electron transfer chain (so they skip glycolysis).Anaerobic respirationAnaerobic respiration does not usage oxygen.Only glycolysis can take place, so it just produces 2 ATP molecules. Single celled organisms eg bacteria and yeast have the right to endure anaerobically.Large animals (eg humans) construct up an oxygen debt once anaerobic.During anaerobic respiration, pyruvate builds up and is converted to :lactate ( lactic acid ) in animals.
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ethanol ( alcohol) in plants."Beer is proof that God loves us and also desires us to be happy". - Benjamin FranklinLast edited March 2021, by David Byres, David.Byres