The 2nd World War was the most destructive problem in humale background. Years of international stress and anxiety and aggressive growth by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany type of culminated in the German intrusion of Poland also on 1 September 1939. Britain and also France declared war on Germany type of two days later.

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The decisions that brought about battle reflected the ambitions, rivalries, fears and anxieties that occurred in the 2 decades that followed the end of the First World War. The European powers were willing to go to battle to extend or safeguard what each nation experienced - in dramatically various methods - as matters of crucial interemainder, excellent power standing, worldwide prestige, and also national survival.

The Legacy of the First World War

The First World War and its subsequent tranquility settlements offered climb to new ambitions, rivalries and also tensions. People had actually high expectations that the post-war peace negotiation would certainly create a new world order and ensure that the slaughter of the First World War was never recurring.

The Treaty of Versailles, signed in June 1919, created the nlinux.organization of Nations - an international body intfinished to promote tranquility and also prevent war. However, the treaty was an unstraightforward weaken as each of the victorious Allies - Britain, America, France and Italy - looked to go after their very own interests. Germany was forced to surrender area, disarm and pay for the war"s damage. These divisive problems were criticised as overly vindictive by many in Britain and America. The treaty"s terms caused instant outrage and also lasting bitterness in Germany.

The sense of defeat, humiliation and injustice would have actually a significant impact on Germale foreign and also domestic plans, and calls to revise the regards to the treaty ended up being a significant element of worldwide national politics in the 1920s and 1930s. The period in between the two civilization wars was among instability and indefense. Political, economic and also social unremainder was made worse by the collapse of the worldwide economic climate in 1929.


The Retreat from Democracy in Europe

The instcapability and indefense of the 1920s and also 1930s provided increase to political extremism in many kind of European countries. People looked to authoritarian leadership as a political alternative. Fascist leader Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in 1922 and also almost all facets of Italian life came under state manage. 

In Germany type of, Adolf Hitler ended up being Chancellor in 1933 and also established a totalitarian one-party state under the Nazis. Political opposition was violently repressed. Hitler exploited the popular idea that Germany type of had been humiliated after the First World War. He promised financial recoextremely, national rebirth and that Germany kind of would certainly return to global prominence through a revision of the Treaty of Versailles.

Germany type of withdrew from the League of Nations in October 1933. In 1935, Hitler announced Gerguy rearmament and also re-presented conscription, which was prohibited under Versailles. The ultra-nationalist federal governments of both Italy and also Germany kind of each sought aggressive foreign policies of territorial expansion that endangered to ruin the people order established by the post-war peace settlement.

Italy and Germany on the March

On 3 October 1935, Italy attacked Abyssinia (existing day Ethiopia). Both nations were members of the League of Nations, and Italy"s aggression compelled the nlinux.organization to intervene. However before, Britain and also France struggled to coordinate an reliable response. They enforced limited economic sanctions, which just puburned Italy ameans from Britain and France and also into closer co-operation through Germany type of. Encouraged by the weak response to Italy"s attack on Abyssinia, Hitler sent out troops right into the Rhineland also on 7 March 1936. This demilitarised zone had been established under the Treaty of Versailles as a buffer in between Germany kind of and France. Britain did not see the occupation as a danger to its interests or overall defense and also did not respond militarily. France, already politically and militarily insecure, was left feeling isolated worldwide and did little bit to withstand the occupation. Hitler"s success in the Rhineland encouraged him to go after an also more aggressive foreign policy. Intervention in the Spanish Civil War, which damaged out in July 1936, reincompelled the divide in between Italy and also Germany kind of on one side, and Britain and France on the other.


Germany type of Expands

Hitler"s ambitions for German development became progressively obvious throughout 1938. Germale troops marched right into Austria on 12 March and also, via the enthusiastic support of most Austrians, the country was linked to Germany type of the next day. Tbelow was little worldwide resistance to this Anschluss, which many type of perceived as a herbal union. However, Hitler"s needs for the German-speaking locations of Czechoslovakia developed a crisis that brought Europe to the brink of war in September 1938.

The multi-ethnic state of Czechoslovakia had been produced towards the finish of the First World War. Many kind of Germans living in Czechoslovakia wanted to re-sign up with Germany kind of. Most lived in an area alengthy the Gerguy and Austrian borders, well-known as the Sudetenland. In the summer of 1938, Hitler endangered battle if the Sudetenland also was not yielded to Germany type of. Britain and also France, although in the procedure of rearming, did not yet feel able to face Hitler with pressure. But by 27 September, both had actually reluctantly accepted that they would certainly go to war if German troops gotten in Czech area without global agreement. The next day, Hitler agreed to an international conference to settle the Sudeten worry.

Britain Appeases

The Italian, British, French and also German leaders met in Munich on 29 and 30 September. They agreed to accept German addition of the Sudetenland also and also the British secured a tranquility pledge from Hitler. Czechoslovakia was not invited to take part in the discussions, but was required to accept the Munich Covenant. Appeasement is the name given to Britain"s plan of accepting Gerguy expansion in Europe in the 1930s. It arisen in response to Britain"s assessment of its political, financial and strategic instance and also was greatly influenced by solid anti-battle sentiment. 

Britain"s renewed rearmament programme was not yet complete. Support from the Dominions was uncertain and also France, Britain"s ally in Europe, was weakened by political and economic crisis. Many Briloads were despeprice to avoid the destruction of an additional people battle, a watch common by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. Chamberlain sshould discover a calm solution, yet appeasement had actually its boundaries. Once Britain began to view Gerguy needs as a direct threat to its protection or the security of its Empire, the tone of British policy began to change.

A Situation Grows

The Munich Commitment removed the instant threat of war and also offered Britain time to continue preparing for a potential battle. Yet Hitler"s confidence only grew after Munich. He was specific that Britain and also France would certainly not usage force to withstand better German growth. In March 1939, Gerguy forces occupied what remained of Czech area. This persuaded Britain and also France that tright here were no borders to Hitler"s territorial ambitions. They were now figured out to proccasion German domination of Europe - by pressure if crucial. 

Recognising that Poland also was likely to be Germany"s following target, they gave promises to defend Polish freedom. Britain and also France, who had actually renewed their entente in February, started joint armed forces planning. Both countries ongoing rearming and in April 1939 Britain presented peacetime conscription for the initially time in its background. However before, war was still viewed as a last resort.

The Danzig Crisis

As Germany was completing its occupation of Czechoslovakia, one more crisis was developing over the city of Danzig (current day Gdansk). Poland also was among numerous new countries born out of the First World War. The new Polish state was offered access to the sea with a "corridor" carved out of German territory. The previous Germale city of Danzig was establimelted as a Free City run by the League of Nations to serve as a major port for Polish profession. The creation of an independent Poland and the loss of Danzig produced lasting resentment in Germany kind of. 

In October 1938, the German Foregime Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop met through the Polish ambassador Josef Lipski to comment on Danzig"s return to Germany. Discussions ended up being more forceful at a meeting between Hitler and Polish Foreign Minister Józef Beck on 5 January 1939 (pictured here). However before, the Poles refprovided to ago down - Danzig was an problem over which they would fight. Polish resistance to Germale demands strengthened after Britain and also France issued their assures to protect Poland"s freedom in March 1939. In April, Hitler ordered preparations for the invasion of Poland. He strengthened ties with Japan, the primary threat to Britain"s Empire in the Far East, and also in May he signed a armed forces alliance with Italy.

The Nazi-Soviet Pact

The Soviet Union had actually greatly withattracted from international affairs in the 1920s and also early 1930s, but German hostility and also the prospering danger of Japan drove it to rethink its foreign plan and rebrand-new its connection via Britain and also France. But this partnership was marked by scepticism and also distrust on both sides. Britain and also France began talks through the Soviet Union in the summer of 1939, but the 3 powers struggled to reach an agreement and also negotiations collapsed. 

Simultaneously, the Soviet Union was pointing out a settlement through Germany. The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact was signed on 23 August 1939, along with a secret protocol that left Hitler free to assault Poland also without risking war with the Soviet Union and also divided eastern Europe into German and also Soviet spheres of affect.

Germany type of Invades Poland

In response to the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Britain and Poland also gotten in right into a formal military alliance on 25 August. The British still hoped for a calm solution, but continued preparing for war. The following few days were marked by frantic attempts to reach a settlement. Mussolini told Hitler that despite their armed forces alliance, Italy would certainly not fight. 

Hitler offered to guarantee the safety of Britain"s empire, yet emphasised the have to "solve" the crisis over Poland. On 29 August, Hitler presented British ambassador Sir Nevile Henderkid via a collection of minimum problems for negotiation, which had conceding both Danzig and the corridor. Hitler likewise made cursory demands for Poland also to sfinish a representative for straight negotiations within 24 hrs. Britain and Poland also refprovided. The instance became deadlocked. The German invasion of Poland started at 4.45am on 1 September.

Britain and also France Declare War on Germany

Neville Chamberlain broadcast this announcement to the country at 11.15am on 3 September. A British ultimatum demanding that Germany type of withdraw its troops from Poland also had been delivered previously that morning and also expired at 11.00 without a reply. Britain was when aacquire at war through Germany. The outbreak of battle did not come as a surprise.

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Tensions in Europe had actually been building for years and also tbelow was a flourishing feeling that Germale aggression required to be challenged with pressure. The British reluctantly welcomed that battle was essential to speak Hitler. Germany kind of stood for a direct danger to British protection and also the protection of its empire. Accepting German supremacy of Europe had grave ramifications for British status and survival. Britain checked out war in 1939 to protect the balance of power in Europe and also safeguard Britain"s position in the civilization.