Appendix J


A rehearsal is the act or procedure of practicing an activity in preparation for the actual performance of that activity. Rehearsing vital combat actions enables participants to come to be familiar via the operation and also to interpret the relatively dry recitation of the tactical plan into visual impression. This visual impression helps them orient themselves to both their environment and to other systems during the execution of the procedure. Additionally, the repetition of combat tasks during the rehearsal leaves a lasting psychological picture of the sequence of vital actions within the procedure. Rehearsals are carried out at all force levels. However before, the discussions in this appendix focus on the brigade level since the standard procedures are the same at all levels.

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There are five forms of rehearsals. They are the confirmation brief, backbrief, combined arms rehearsal, assistance rehearsal, and battle drill or SOP rehearsal. Each kind of rehearsal achieves a particular result and also has actually a particular place in the MDMP time line. The objectives of these rehearsals are:

Confirmation brief. The confirmation brief is on a regular basis perdeveloped by a subordinate leader instantly after receiving any type of instructions, OPORD, FRAGO, etc. Subordinate leaders brief the better commander on:

– Their understanding of his intent.

– Their specific task and also objective.

– The relationship between their unit"s mission and also the mission of other systems.

Backbrief. The backbrief is usually performed throughout the MDMP. This rehearsal permits the commander to clarify his intent early on in the subordinate"s tactical estimate procedure. The better commander uses backbriefs to:

– Identify troubles in his principle of operation.

– Identify difficulties in subordinate unit commander"s idea of operations.

Determine just how a subordinate inhas a tendency to attain the mission.

Integrated arms rehearsal. The merged arms rehearsal is normally conducted by a maneuver unit headquarters and also performed after the subordinate units have actually issued their OPORD. This rehearsal ensures:

– The subordinate units plans are synchronized via the various other systems in the company.

– The plans of all subordinate commander"s will properly accomplish the intent of the better commander.

Support rehearsal. Support rehearsals are typically percreated within the framework of a single or limited number of BOS. Examples incorporate the FS rehearsal or the CSS rehearsal. Support rehearsals are perdeveloped throughout the MDMP timeline. Although these rehearsals differ slightly by BOS, they achieve the exact same result:

– Ensure the soldiers responsible for a particular BOS have the right to support the higher commander"s plan.

– Ensure all assigned objectives will certainly be percreated.

– Synchronize the specific BOS assistance setup via the maneuver plan.

Battle drill rehearsal or SOP rehearsal. The function of a fight drill or SOP rehearsal is to encertain all participants understand also a method or a specific set of actions. This rehearsal is performed by all echelons, yet most broadly at platoon, squad, and section levels. These rehearsals are performed throughout the MDMP timeline. This type of rehearsal is not limited to publimelted fight drills. It might be the rehearsal of a TOC transition change, obstacle breach lane-marking SOP, actions a POL area takes at a ROM website or a section activity in the defense of a radar website.


Techniques for percreating rehearsals are limited only by the resourcefulness of the unit. Usually six techniques are used:

Full dress.

Reduced force.

Terrain model.

Map out map.



These 6 approaches selection from considerable preparation, in time and also sources, to minimal preparation. As they are noted, each takes a decreasing amount of time and resources to prepare and also conduct. Each rehearsal method offers different degrees of knowledge for the participants and has various protection threats. Figure J-1 reflects the rehearsal methods in their loved one positions, considering: time, resourcing, OPSEC, participation, and also level of knowledge got.


Figure J-1. Benefits and Resourcing for Rehearsal Techniques

Considerations for these 6 rehearsal methods are disputed based on time, echelon, operational security (OPSEC), and terrain.


The full dress rehearsal produces the most detailed knowledge of the mission. It entails eexceptionally soldier and also system participating in the operation. If feasible, units need to conduct full dress rehearsal under the exact same conditions, weather, time of day, terrain, and so on., as the force will enrespond to throughout the actual operation. This might incorporate the usage of live ammunition. The complete dress rehearsal is the a lot of tough to accomplish, especially at higher command also levels.Considerations for the complete dress rehearsal include:

Time. Full dress rehearsals are usually the a lot of time consuming of all the rehearsal methods. At the BDE and TF levels, ensure you carry out not encroach subordinate unit timelines by scheduling a complete dress rehearsal at your own convenience. For smaller devices (company and also below), complete dress rehearsals are the most effective strategy for ensuring everyone in the operation understands their part of the mission.

Technique. Immediately prior to the complete dress rehearsal, systems could take into consideration holding a lessened pressure rehearsal to ensure the leaders thoaround understand the mission. Although this might look favor it will require more time, the time spent through just the leaders will encertain the full dress rehearsal goes smoothly and also properly.

Echelon. A subordinate unit deserve to percreate a full dress rehearsal as component of a bigger unit"s lessened force rehearsal.

OPSEC. The movement of a big body of the pressure will certainly definitely attract attention from the foe. Units have to build a plan to ensure the rehearsal is defended from the eyes of the enemy.

Terrain. Terrain administration for the complete dress approach deserve to be tough if it is not planned into the initial range of pressures. The rehearsal area need to be established, secured, cleared and also kept throughout the rehearsal process. Throughout offensive operations, a 2nd set of graphics should be emerged for the rehearsal to mirror the actual plan. Throughout the defense, the rehearsing unit may already be occupying the terrain, and a 2nd set of graphics may not be necessary.

REDUCED FORCE REHEARSALThis rehearsal technique normally takes less time and resources than a full dress rehearsal because it entails just the unit"s and also subordinate unit"s key leaders. Terrain requirements are the very same as for a full dress rehearsal, just the number of participants alters. The commander first decides the level of leader involvement wanted. The selected leaders then rehearse the setup while traversing the actual or favor terrain. Commanders regularly usage this rehearsal to rehearse the fire regulate measures in an engagement area. However, as during full dress rehearsal, it is very vulnerable to foe combat knowledge activities. The diminished pressure rehearsal permits the leadership to rehearse the mission prior to relocating to the full dress rehearsal.Considerations for the lessened force rehearsal include:

Time. The decreased pressure rehearsal usually calls for less time than the complete dress technique. This is a terrific method for smaller sized devices to ensure leaders understand also all required goals prior to moving to a full dress rehearsal. However before, take into consideration the subordinate unit"s time table prior to scheduling the rehearsal.

Echelon. A tiny, subordinate unit deserve to percreate a complete dress rehearsal as part of a larger unit"s reduced pressure rehearsal.

OPSEC. This rehearsal is not as most likely to become an OPSEC difficulty as the full dress because the rehearsing unit is smaller sized. However before, the variety of radio transobjectives continues to be about the exact same as the complete dress and should be considered.

Terrain. Terrain administration for the decreased pressure rehearsal have the right to be just as hard as the full dress. The rehearsal area need to be figured out, secured, cleared and preserved throughout the rehearsal procedure. Just like the full dress rehearsal, a second graphic may have to be developed mirroring the actual setup yet modified to fit the rehearsal terrain.


This rehearsal takes much less time and also fewer sources than the vital leader rehearsal and is the a lot of well-known approach. The commander decides on the level of leader involvement, and then has a scale terrain design of the area of operations constructed. An specific terrain model deserve to help subordinate leaders visualize the battle and their commanders" intentions. When possible, the commander need to place the terrain model where it overlooks the actual terrain of the location of operations. However, if the instance calls for even more security, the terrain model have the right to be inserted on the reverse slope within walking distance of a suggest overlooking the area of operations. The model"s orientation have to coincide with the actual orientation of the terrain to assist participants orient to the actual location of operations. The size of the terrain design can vary from wbelow icons are relocated to represent units to a huge version on which the participants deserve to walk. A big design helps reinforce participants" perception of loved one positions of units on the actual terrain.Considerations for the terrain design rehearsal:

Time. The a lot of time-consuming component of the approach have the right to be the building and construction of the terrain version. Units must have actually a clear SOP stating who builds it, just how it is built, and also when it is constructed to encertain the version is specific, huge enough, and also in adequate information to rehearse the mission.

Echelon. Terrain model rehearsals can quickly involve many kind of various types of leaders. This, merged via the reliable use of time, provides it a very effective multi-echelon method.

OPSEC. This rehearsal can become an OPSEC problem if the area roughly the rehearsal site is not secured. The arsenal of leaders and also their vehicles can bring attention from the enemy. Upon completion of the rehearsal, ensure the terrain model is sanitized.

Terrain. Terrain administration is not as tough as the previous approaches. The area of the site need to be simple to discover for the friendly commanders, yet invisible to the enemy. The optimum place is overlooking the terrain on which the mission will be percreated.


Units deserve to usage this approach practically everywhere day or night. The steps are the very same as for a terrain version rehearsal, except the commander supplies a sketch in location of a version. Sketches need to be large enough for all participants to see as each subordinate walks via the interenergetic verbal execution of the operation. Units move icons to recurrent their maneuver and area on the sketch. This approach is exceptionally efficient for confirmation briefs and backbriefs.Considerations for the sketch map rehearsal:

OPSEC. Similar to the terrain version, this rehearsal can come to be an OPSEC trouble if it is performed exterior and also the area approximately the rehearsal website is not secured. Another worry is that the collection of commanders and also their vehicles deserve to bring attention from the opponent.

Terrain. The optimum location is overlooking the terrain on which the mission will be percreated.


The map rehearsal actions are equivalent to the sketch map rehearsal, except the commander offers a map and operation overlay of the same range as being used to setup and control the procedure.Considerations for the map rehearsal:

Time. The many time-consuming part is the rehearsal itself. The setup for this rehearsal is normally the easiest bereason it just calls for maps and the existing operational graphics.

OPSEC. As with the terrain version method, this might be an OPSEC problem if it is percreated external and also the area about the rehearsal website is not secured. Anvarious other worry is the arsenal of commanders and their vehicles have the right to carry attention from the enemy.

Terrain. The optimum place is overlooking the terrain on which the mission will certainly be performed.

RADIO REHEARSALThe commander and his staff conduct radio rehearsals by interactively and also verbally executing instrumental portions of the operation over established communications networks. This is achieved in a general sequence of events that the commander establishes. Due to the fact that of the noticeable risks associated with using this particular rehearsal, just the important, most-critical sections of the operation are rehearsed. When offered, these rehearsals include all communications facilities and also equipment essential to conduct that actual portion of the operation. To be reliable, all participants have to have working interactions devices and a copy of the OPORD and also overlays. The TOC can rehearse tracking the battle all at once. Considerations for the radio rehearsal:

Time. This approach deserve to be exceptionally time consuming if the unit does not have actually a clear SOP for percreating this rehearsal. Using this method requires all units to have operational communications devices.

OPSEC. Just like the complete dress and crucial leader rehearsals, this rehearsal have the right to end up being an OPSEC trouble because of the volume of the radio transobjectives and also potential deteriorate of information with enemy radio surveillance. A different collection of frequencies should be supplied to protect the ones to be offered for the procedure. The use of wire systems is an choice yet does not exercise the radio systems, which is the solid point of this rehearsal approach.


An reliable technique for managing the rehearsals is to use a manuscript. The manuscript keeps the rehearsal on track and serves as the checklist to encertain that all BOS are stood for and all exceptional issues are addressed during the rehearsal. The script has 4 major parts:

The agenda.

The response sequence.

Unit actions checklist (friendly and also enemy).

Sequence of events.


Rehearse using the tools you will certainly use when fighting the battle: the OPORD, synchronization matrix, and the DST. Use these tools to drive the rehearsal and also to also assist keep the rehearsal concentrated. Throughout fire assistance rehearsals, usage the fire support execution matrix. These assets can be provided as a rehearsal agenda from agency with brigade. If time is short, usage the agenda as the food selection to select events to be rehearsed. Because these items are issued to the subordinates during the OPORD, subordinates are even more ready for the rehearsal because they understand which events will certainly be rehearsed.


Encertain the players respond in a logical sequence. This sequence should be identified prior to the rehearsal. One sequence might be by BOS; another might be by unit as the company is deployed from front to rear. Whatever sequence you use, it need to be determined before the rehearsal. Posting the response sequence at the rehearsal site is beneficial.


Friendly. Each player uses a traditional format to define his unit or staff action. Use of this kind of checklist ensures that all significant points are covered conveniently. This likewise helps increase the expertise of the other players bereason they are able to key on a widespread sequence of information. Properly supplied, the checklist allows the rehearsal to move quickly and also boosts comprehension.

Enemy. The foe force have to be illustrated efficiently and quickly without distracting from the rehearsal. A technique is to create a unit activity checklist choose that of the friendly units, however from the enemy perspective.


The following paragraphs administer a generic sequence of occasions for a rehearsal. Although emerged for a merged arms rehearsal, this sequence deserve to be offered for FS rehearsals through a few modifications. This example have the right to be used for BDE-, BN/TF-, or CO/TM-level rehearsals and also will certainly support any kind of rehearsal method.

Step 1. Ground rules.

– Call roll; START ON TIME.

– Quickly testimonial your SOP to check out if you have new players at the rehearsal.

– Ensure a recorder is ready.

– State the agenda being supplied (OPORD, synchronization matrix or DST) and the rehearsal type.

– Provide an orientation to the rehearsal tools (terrain version or visible crucial terrain, unit icons, etc.) and important graphic regulate steps.

– Designate the allude in the operation that the rehearsal will certainly begin. One occasion before the initially occasion being rehearsed permits for proper deployment of forces.

– Ensure everyone understands the parts of the plan to be rehearsed.

Step 2. Deploy the foe. Deploy the enemy on the rehearsal product, as they would look at the rehearsal begin allude. Restating the adversary equipment need to not be compelled.

Tip 3. Deploy the friendly. Deploy the friendly forces (including nearby units) at the rehearsal start point. As friendly units are initially posted to the rehearsal product, they need to state their:

– Task and also function, job company and toughness.

– Some systems might should brief their subordinate unit positions at the start time, and also any type of particular points of focus to encompass FARPs, and also ROM.

Step 4. Advance the foe. Begin proceeding the opponent on his a lot of likely course of action (situational template) as it pertains to the allude on the execution matrix. Because in Tip 2 the enemy was deployed approximately the point the rehearsal will begin, the adversary continues to maneuver from there. Depiction need to be definitive, tying enemy actions to certain terrain or friendly units" actions. An specific portrayal of the situational theme arisen for the staff wargaming procedure have to be interacted. The opponent is unparticipating, but not invincible.

Tip 5. Decision suggest. Upon completion of the foe activity, conditions need to be assessed to determine if a decision suggest has been got to. These are the decision points taken directly from the DST.

– At a decision point: as decision points are reached, the XO states the problems for success. The commander says his decision to proceed on the existing course or select a branch.

– If the commander decides to continue the current COA, the following occasion from the matrix is stated and the friendly devices are advanced (Step 2).

– If a branch is selected, the commander says why he has schosen that branch. The first occasion of that branch is declared, and the rehearsal proceeds from that suggest until all occasions of the branch are rehearsed.

Not at a Decision Point: if the unit is not at a decision allude and not at the wanted end state, then the rehearsal proceeds via the XO stating the following event on the synchronization matrix, and also friendly units are advanced (Step 2). Use the preestablished sequence as devices continue to act out and also verbalize their actions.

Step 6. End state of the branch is got to. End the initial phase of the rehearsal after the desired finish state of the COA or the branch is achieved. In an strike this will certainly commonly be on the objective after consolidation and also casualty evacuation are complete. In the defense, this will generally be after the decisive actions such as the commitment of the reserve, the last damage or withdrawal of the enemy, and casualty evacuation are finish.

Step 7. Recock. After the initial phase, "recock" to the case at the initially decision suggest. The XO should state the criteria for a decision to readjust the plan. Assume these criteria have actually been met and then re-fight the fight from that allude forward, all the method until the desired end state is attained. Complete any type of coordicountry to ensure knowledge and demands are met; record any type of alters. Go to the next decision suggest and also assume that the criteria have been met. Repeat the previous measures until all decision points and branches have been rehearsed.

Step 8. Follow-up and coordination. As little concerns aincrease in the time of the rehearsal, they are taped. At the finish of the rehearsal, the recorder states these worries for testimonial and final decision. This ensures the flow of the rehearsal is not interrupted. "War stopping" problems elevated anytime during the rehearsal must be immediately addressed. This coordicountry is one of the key points of the rehearsals. If it is not done immediately, it will certainly be tough to get the word to all the players later.

STAFF SUPPORT ACTIONSThe staff updays the DSM/DST and gives it to each leader before leave. The targeting officer and also radar section leader will certainly be personally involved in updating TA connected assets. These incorporate input to the RS&S setup, radar zones, cueing agents, triggers and radar movement and also positioning. This is the last possibility for subordinates to recognize and also solve dangling problems. Make certain all coordination done at the rehearsal is plainly understood by all players and also caught by the recorder. All alters to the published order are, in impact, verbal FRAGOs. As shortly as possible, the battle staff must collect the verbal FRAGOs right into a written change to the order.


Fire assistance rehearsals are essential for ensuring the synchronization of the fire support setup via the system of maneuver. Technical fire control details should be addressed in the DS FA battalion and FA technological rehearsals. The fire assistance rehearsal must focus on maximizing the capability of the fire support mechanism to assistance the plan and attain the commander"s intent.Although this is a FS rehearsal, the brigade need to be very closely involved to ensure synchronization of the FS plan with the maneuver arrangement. Whenever before possible, the brigade commander must take part too. Generally the brigade sends the XO, S-3, S-4, S-2, engineer, FSO, ALO, targeting officer, army aviation LNO, forward support battalion (FSB) representative, and the striker platoon leader and strikers, if obtainable. Key representatives from the DS FA battalion encompass the commander, S3, S2, FDO, and also radar section leader. From the maneuver TFs, the commander, if obtainable, S-3, FSO, scout platoon leader, and mortar platoon leader. The DS FA battalion commander typically conducts this rehearsal for the brigade commander. The brigade FSO and the targeting officer assist him.The FS rehearsal commonly lasts around 1 to 11/2 hrs. Tbelow is hardly ever time to rehearse every taracquire. Rehearse at a minimum the priority targets. The function of the FS rehearsal is to ensure synchronization of the FS initiative within the unit and also to encertain that the FS arrangement supports the commander"s intent. FS rehearsals need to happen before the unified arms rehearsal. Normally the approach selected for the rehearsal is the radio strategy, although the terrain version strategy works also.


Step 1. - Agenda. Use the fire support execution matrix. Generally prior to the rehearsal, the DS FA battalion FDO will certainly announce the brigade consolidated taracquire list by number, grid and any kind of unique instruction for the targets. Establish the response sequence beforehand, and also article wbelow all participants have the right to watch it. See Figure J-2. If the FS rehearsal occurs prior to the linked arms rehearsal, then selection of branches to rehearse is done by the FSCOORD. If it occurs after the combined arms rehearsal, then the sequence the branches are rehearsed mirrors that of the proceeding merged arms rehearsal.

Friendly Unit Actions

What is the job and function of the activity or target?

When are the problems or trigger met?

Wright here is the tarobtain, and where is the observer location?

Who is responsible for the target, the backup, which radio net and backup?

What are the desired effects?

Figure J-2. Friendly Unit Actions

Step 2 - Deploy the foe. Intelligence upday as forced.

Tip 3 - Deploy the friendly. The FSCOORD says the FSCM in result at the starting point of the rehearsal and provides last-minute guidance.

Tip 4 - Advance the foe. The DS FA battalion S2 and targeting officer advance the enemy one instrumental event at a time. When the S2 finishes describing the occasion, all fire supporters execute their portion of the fire assistance plan prompted by the activity.

Example scenario:

– The following is a delibeprice strike example. The response sequence is front to rear; several units were left out for brevity. The sequence is: striker, TF Mech, TF 1-1, . . . ALO, . . . and also S2. The DS FA battalion S2 states: It is now H+6. SBF Mech has actually been established; all 3 foe platoon positions are being obscured by smoke and also suppressed by SBF Mech. TF 1-1 is moving on Axis Slam just approaching PP1.

– The striker team would respond: This is striker team 2; I am backup for TGT AE0005 vicinity NA123456. TF 1-1"s closure on PP1 is the trigger to fire. I will observe the TGT from vicinity NA 345678 and also speak to it on FS net. . . . The alternative strategy is. . . .The TGT objective is. . . .The wanted effects are. . . . Break. . . .FDC, this is striker team 2 fire TGT AE0005, over. The FDO would certainly repeat the speak to for fire and worry a message to observer to include time of trip. The observer would end the mission.

– The TF Mech FSO would respond: No Action.

– The TF1-1 FSO would respond: This is TF 1-1 FSO; I am the priority for TGT AE0005. Our clocertain on PP1 is the trigger to fire TGT AE0005, NA 123456. Alpha Team FIST will certainly observe the TGT from vicinity NA 234567 and also call it on FS net. . . .The alternative technique is. . . .The TGT function is. . . . The desired results are. . . .Break. . . .FDC, this is TF1-1 FSO fire TGT AE0005, over. The FDO would certainly repeat the call for fire and also worry a message to observer to incorporate time of flight. If the Alpha Team FIST is participating, then he would certainly fire the TGT rather of the TF FSO. The observer would certainly end the mission.

– The ALO would certainly state: This is BDE ALO, TF 1-1 closure on PP1 is my cause. Four A-10s through Mavericks are at IP Cheese. The ALO would continue with magnetic heading from IP to TGT, TGT summary, place, and also elevation, technique of marking area of friendlies, egress, time from IP to tarobtain. Any SEAD or ACA changes in support of CAS need to be rehearsed with the CAS mission.

– The S2 or targeting officer states: radar area 1 , this is S2/targeting officer. TF 1-1 clocertain on PP1 is my create, contact for fire zone number 1, and important friendly zones 4, 5, and 6 are in effect now. Cue radar schedule Jane, 12 minutes, over.

– The radar area leader would respond: S2/targeting officer, this is radar area leader, call for fire zone number 1, and important friendly zones 4, 5, and 6 are in result. Cue radar schedule Jane, 12 minutes, out.

For each target rehearse grid location, cause suggest, engagement criteria, primary and also backup observer and also interactions method, approach of engagement and also assault guidance. Ensure the DS battalion S3 presents the battery activity plans and also out-of-activity cycles. Rehearse the radar taracquire handoff and include clearing the fires at the TF level if TF FSOs are affiliated. The rehearsal of priority counterfire targets is required once rehearsing priority targets. Have the radar area leader insert one or two acquisitions per phase of the rehearsal.

Steps 5 - 8 are performed as formerly disputed.


This rehearsal ensures the validity of the FS plan. It illustrates why fires are required in relation to particular maneuver occasions and what they are intfinished to achieve. It crosswalks observers via shooters and also ties them to a condition or event on the battlefield. It ensures that FS perdevelops the assigned EFSTs and also meets the commander"s intent. When correctly performed, the rehearsal methods the redundancy of observers and also nets by having actually both the backup and also main shoot the targets. The FS arrangement is validated via the system of maneuver, the commander"s intent, and strike guidance. It ensures the obstacle setup is coordinated via the FS setup and also both support the maneuver setup. Finally it ensures the regulate actions for protecting and also controlling aerial and ground pressures are in location, integrated, and taken by all.BRIGADE COMBINED ARMS REHEARSALAfter receiving an OPORD, subordinate leaders must be afforded the important time to complete their very own planning prior to a parent unit"s merged arms rehearsal. This planning home window provides time for crucial mission evaluation, course-of-action breakthrough and also evaluation, and OPORD publishing. This ensures subordinate leaders have time to assign responsibility for specified jobs and deal with issues found in the parent commander"s OPORD.The commander, XO, and main staff, the subordinate unit commanders and also their S3, targeting officer, S2, and FSO need to attfinish. Other pivotal players in the unit mission must attend too. These incorporate the normal leadership slice together with units operating in direct assistance such as aviation devices and strikers. Whenever feasible, flank units and also the better unit have to be invited to attend. When time is short, attendance might be modified.Normally, tbelow is inenough time to rehearse the entire procedure. About 1 to 1 1/2 hours is a good preeminence yet is METT-TC dependant. If as well a lot time is consumed, sepaprice BOS support rehearsals and also subordinate unit merged arms rehearsals will certainly absence sufficient time. Encertain you prioritize those critical occasions that demand leader visualization of their synchronization. Rehearse the a lot of crucial occasion initially, and, as time permits, continue to rehearse succeeding occasions. Subordinates must arrive ready to rehearse the prioritized occasions.REHEARSAL SCRIPT

Agenda. Use the DST and also the synchronization matrix to facilitate the rehearsal. Establish the response sequence prior to the rehearsal starts. Article it wright here all participants can check out it.

Sequence of Events. Use the measures debated in the basic conversation about rehearsals.

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Rehearsal tasks. The FSO, targeting officer, strikers and radar area leader rehearse the exact same task, function and also actions for the events rehearsed in the time of the fire assistance rehearsal. Incorporating these activities in the combined arms rehearsal ensures that all fire support and tarobtain acquisition activities are synchronized with the maneuver plan.