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Key People:Henri MoissanEdmond Frémy...(Show more)Related Topics:Chemical elementHalogenFluorosis...(Sjust how more)

Fluorine (F), many reenergetic chemical aspect and also the lightest member of the halogen facets, or Group 17 (Group VIIa) of the routine table. Its chemical task can be attributed to its extreme capability to tempt electrons (it is the most electronegative element) and also to the small size of its atoms.

Element Propertiesatomic numberatomic weightmelting pointboiling pointdensity (1 atm, 0 °C or 32 °F)oxidation stateselectron config.
−219.62 °C (−363.32 °F)
−188 °C (−306 °F)
1.696 g/litre (0.226 ounce/gallon)


The fluorine-containing mineral fluorspar (or fluorite) was explained in 1529 by the Gerguy physician and also mineralogist Georgius Agricola. It appears most likely that crude hydrofluoric acid was first all set by an unknown English glassworker in 1720. In 1771 the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele derived hydrofluoric acid in an impure state by heating fluorspar through focused sulfuric acid in a glass retort, which was substantially corroded by the product; as a result, vessels made of metal were used in succeeding experiments through the substance. The almost anhydrous acid was ready in 1809, and 2 years later on the French physicist André-Marie Ampère suggested that it was a compound of hydrogen via an unwell-known element, analogous to chlorine, for which he said the name fluorine. Fluorspar was then known to be calcium fluoride.


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The isolation of fluorine was for a lengthy time one of the chief unresolved troubles in inorganic chemistry, and it was not till 1886 that the French chemist Henri Moissan ready the element by electrolyzing a solution of potassium hydrogen fluoride in hydrogen fluoride. He got the 1906 Nobel Prize for Chemisattempt for isolating fluorine. The difficulty in managing the facet and also its toxic properties added to the slow-moving progression in fluorine chemisattempt. Without a doubt, approximately the time of World War II the facet appeared to be a laboratory curiosity. Then, however, the use of uranium hexafluoride in the separation of uranium isotopes, together with the breakthrough of organic fluorine compounds of commercial importance, made fluorine an industrial chemical of substantial use.

Occurrence and distribution

The fluorine-containing mineral fluorspar (fluorite, CaF2) has actually been used for centuries as a flux (cleansing agent) in assorted metallurgical processes. The name fluorspar is derived from the Latin fluere, “to circulation.” The mineral consequently verified to be a source of the aspect, which was as necessary named fluorine. The colourless, transparent crystals of fluorspar exhibit a bluish tinge as soon as illuminated, and also this building is appropriately known as fluorescence.

Fluorine is discovered in nature only in the develop of its chemical compounds, other than for trace amounts of the cost-free aspect in fluorspar that has actually been subjected to radiation from radium. Not a rare aspect, it makes up about 0.065 percent of Earth’s crust. The principal fluorine-containing minerals are (1) fluorspar, deposits of which take place in Illinois, Kentucky, Derbyshire, southern Germany, the southern of France, and Russia and also the chief source of fluorine, (2) cryolite (Na3AlF6), chiefly from Greenland, (3) fluoroapatite (Ca53), widely spread and containing variable amounts of fluorine and chlorine, (4) topaz (Al2SiO42), the gemrock, and (5) lepidolite, a mica and also a component of animal bones and teeth.

Physical and chemical properties

At room temperature fluorine is a faintly yellow gas through an irritating odour. Inhalation of the gas is dangerous. Upon cooling fluorine becomes a yellow liquid. Tright here is only one secure isotope of the aspect, fluorine-19.

Due to the fact that fluorine is the a lot of electronegative of the facets, atomic groupings rich in fluorine are frequently negatively charged. Methyl iodide (CH3I) and trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I) have various charge distributions as shown in the following formulas, in which the Greek symbol δ indicates a partial charge:


The first ionization energy of fluorine is extremely high (402 kilocalories per mole), giving a traditional warmth development for the F+ cation of 420 kilocalories per mole.

The small dimension of the fluorine atom provides it feasible to pack a relatively large variety of fluorine atoms or ions approximately a offered coordicountry centre (main atom) wbelow it forms many kind of secure complexes—for example, hexafluorosilicate (SiF6)2− and also hexafluoroaluminate (AlF6)3−. Fluorine is the most powercompletely oxidizing facet. No various other substance, therefore, is able to oxidize the fluoride anion to the totally free element, and thus the element is not discovered in the free state in nature. For even more than 150 years, all chemical approaches had actually faibrought about develop the element, success having actually been achieved only by the usage of electrolytic techniques. However, in 1986 Amerideserve to chemist Karl O. Christe reported the initially chemical preparation of fluorine, wright here “chemical preparation” indicates an approach that does not use techniques such as electrolysis, photolysis, and discharge or use fluorine itself in the synthesis of any of the founding materials. He offered K2MnF6 and antimony pentafluoride (SbF5), both of which can be conveniently all set from HF options.

The high oxidizing power of fluorine permits the element to create the greatest oxidation numbers feasible in other elements, and many high oxidation state fluorides of elements are known for which there are no other corresponding halides—e.g., silver difluoride (AgF2), cobalt trifluoride (CoF3), rhenium heptafluoride (ReF7), bromine pentafluoride (BrF5), and iodine heptafluoride (IF7).

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Fluorine (F2), created of 2 fluorine atoms, combines with all other facets except helium and neon to form ionic or covalent fluorides. Some metals, such as nickel, are quickly extended by a fluoride layer, which stays clear of additionally attack of the metal by the aspect. Certain dry steels, such as mild steel, copper, aluminum, or Monel (a 66 percent nickel, 31.5 percent copper alloy), are not assaulted by fluorine at simple temperatures. For work-related through fluorine at temperatures up to 600 °C (1,100 °F), Monel is suitable; sintered alumina is resistant as much as 700 °C (1,300 °F). When lubricants are required, fluorocarbon oils are many suitable. Fluorine reacts violently through organic matter (such as rubber, hardwood, and cloth), and managed fluoricountry of organic compounds by the action of elepsychological fluorine is just feasible if one-of-a-kind precautions are taken.