Human Anatomy and also Physiology Help » Gross Anatomy » Introductory Concepts » Defining Anatomical Orientations
Explanation:

Terms used to define the orientation of a framework frequently have a word that indicates the oppowebsite so they deserve to be concerned one an additional. Proximal implies that the structure is closer to a point of attachment, while lateral describes a framework being ameans from the middle of the body. The opposing term for proximal is distal, definition away from the allude of attachment, and also the opposing term for lateral is medial, interpretation toward the center line.

You are watching: Which of the following orientation terms have opposite meanings (in humans)

Superior indicates above, while inferior shows below. Anterior describes the front, while posterior describes the back. Superficial shows that a structure is close to the surchallenge, while deep shows that it is under other frameworks.


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Example Question #1 : Defining Anatomical Orientations


Which of the complying with frameworks is distal to the elbow?


Possible Answers:

Biceps brachii


Sternum


Shoulder


Wrist


Correct answer:

Wrist


Explanation:

When a structure is distal to one more structure, it is farther from the suggest of attachment to the body. The wrist is farther from the point of attachment to the body than the elbow, so it is distal to the elbow.

The shoulder is thought about remarkable (above) and also proximal to the elbow, indicating that it is closer to the suggest of attachment.


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Example Question #1 : Gross Anatomy


What is the oppowebsite activity of pronation? 


Possible Answers:

Circumduction


Dorsiflexion


Eversion


Supination


Correct answer:

Supination


Explanation:

Procountry is the act of rotating the wrist so that the palm is facing downward. The oppowebsite impact is rotating the wrist so that the palm encounters upward. This activity is dubbed supination.

Evariation is the action of rotating the foot such that the medial area is oriented downward. Dorsiflexion is the activity of decreasing the angle in between the foot and the leg. Circumduction refers to the pattern of circular movement led to by multiple muscles at a joint, such as rotating the index finger in little circles.


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Example Question #2 : Defining Anatomical Orientations


What direction does your hand also relocate with radial deviation of the wrist?


Possible Answers:

Laterally


Posteriorly


Medially


Anteriorly


Correct answer:

Laterally


Explanation:

In anatomic place, radial deviation of the wrist outcomes in your hand also relocating laterally ameans from the midline of the body.

Ulnar deviation of the wrist will certainly cause the hand also to relocate medially.


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Example Concern #5 : Defining Anatomical Orientations


The term "proximal" shows a area that is __________ one more place.


Possible Answers:

closer to the midline than


closer to the trunk than


following to


farther from the midline than


farther from the trunk than


Correct answer:

closer to the trunk than


Explanation:

"Proximal" is a means to describe places in the extremities and also appenderas. An even more proximal structure is situated closer to the trunk, mostly indicating closer to the shoulder or hip. In contrast, distal shows a place that is farther from the trunk and also closer to the end of the appendage. For instance, tbelow are 3 bones in each finger known as the phalanges. These bones are named according to orientation: proximal phalanx, intermediate phalanx, and distal phalanx. All of these, of course, are situated distal to the metacarpals (wrist).

The terms "medial" and also "lateral" are provided to explain relative area towards the midline. A medial structure is closer to the midline (think nose and also navel), while a lateral framework is farther from the midline. The term offered to describe one framework that is next to another is "surrounding."


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Example Inquiry #1 : Defining Anatomical Orientations


What is a synonym for anterior?


Possible Answers:

Superior


Ventral


Sternal


Superficial


Dorsal


Correct answer:

Ventral


Explanation:

Anterior and posterior are opposites, via anterior referring to the front of the body and also posterior referring to the ago. Ventral is offered interchangeably through anterior, and also dorsal is supplied interchangeably via posterior. Basically, anterior and ventral both show "front," while posterior and also dorsal both show "earlier."

Sternal is used to explain the sternum and also is often provided as a medial referral point in thoracic biology or medicine. Superficial means closer to the skin, whereas deep shows that a framework is farther from the skin. Superior indicates "upward" and is generally a synonym through cranial (toward the head). In comparison, inferior suggests "downward" and is frequently a synonym via caudal (toward the coccyx).


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Example Concern #3 : Defining Anatomical Orientations


What does "lateral" mean in directional anatomy?


Possible Answers:

Cshed to the latissimus dorsi muscle


Attached to the midline of the body


Away from the midline of the body


In between the midline and the dermis


Ameans from the latissimus dorsi muscle


Correct answer:

Ameans from the midline of the body


Explanation:

Lateral is a general directional that deserve to be applied to objects farther from the midline of the body. The midline is identified as the medial sagittal plane, mostly including the navel and also nose. Structures such as the shoulders, ears, and also hips are taken into consideration lateral. When provided in loved one terms, we deserve to say that the lungs are lateral to the heart and also the ovaries are lateral to the uterus. In contrast, the opposite term of lateral is medial; the heart is medial to the lungs and the uterus is medial to the ovaries.

The latissimus dorsi muscles are located on both sides of the spine, and their name is directionally descriptive. They have no bearing on directional terms, unmuch less used as reference points. Anatomical structures attached to the midline could be defined as lateral, yet just if they deviate farther left or best from the midline. A framework have the right to be attached to the midline, but run entirely vertical in the medial sagittal aircraft.


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Example Concern #1 : Defining Anatomical Orientations


A transverse section sepaprices the body into which of the complying with orientations?


Possible Answers:

Anterior and also posterior


Legs and torso


Superior and also inferior


Medial and also sagittal


Left and also right


Correct answer:

Superior and inferior


Explanation:

A transverse slice is the only see to area the body through the horizontal aircraft. The outcome is a superior region (over the cut) and also an inferior area (below the cut). A transverse section of the brain is generally used to display the lenticreate nucleus (consisting of the globus pallidus and putamen) and also the cauday.

A coronal area runs from ideal to left throughout the body, dividing it right into an anterior (ventral) percent and posterior (dorsal) portion.

A sagittal slice runs from anterior to posterior, dividing the body right into left and ideal regions. A perfectly focused sagittal slice is called a medial sagittal section.


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Example Concern #2 : Gross Anatomy


A coronal area divides the body right into which of the adhering to orientations?


Possible Answers:

Superior and inferior


Left and also right


Head and body


Anterior and posterior


Medial and also sagittal 


Correct answer:

Anterior and posterior


Explanation:

A coronal section runs from right to left throughout the body, dividing it right into an anterior (ventral) portion and also posterior (dorsal) percent. When a coronal area is offered to research the brain, the lateral ventricle and also thalamus are mostly exceptionally prominent.

If the body were separated into inferior and also premium sections, for example head and body, then a transverse slice should have actually been used. A transverse slice is the only view to section the body via the horizontal plane.

A sagittal slice runs from anterior to posterior, dividing the body into left and also appropriate areas. A perfectly centered sagittal slice is called a medial sagittal section. 


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Example Concern #2 : Gross Anatomy


The brain is situated in which cavity of the body?


Possible Answers:

The skull cavity


The anterior cavity


The ventral cavity


The pelvic cavity


The dorsal cavity


Correct answer:

The dorsal cavity


Explanation:

The body is split right into two main cavities, which are then subsplit right into a number of smaller cavities. The main cavities are the dorsal cavity and also the ventral cavity. The dorsal cavity is subdivided right into the vertebral cavity, which runs through the vertebrae and holds the spinal cord, and also the cranial cavity. The cranial cavity is located within the skull and consists of the brain. Because the cranial cavity is not offered as a response choice, the ideal option is the dorsal cavity.

The ventral cavity is even more complex and has more subcavities. The main departments are the thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, and also pelvic cavity. The diaphragm sepaprices the thoracic and also abdominal cavities.

There are not technical frameworks known as the anterior cavity or skull cavity.

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