What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored power by breaking dvery own complicated molecules?

A) anabolic pathways

B) catabolic pathways

C) fermentation pathways

D) thermodynamic pathways

E) bioenergetic pathways


The molecule that attributes as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction

A) gains electrons and gains energy.

You are watching: Which of the following occur(s) in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

B) loses electrons and also loses energy.

C) gains electrons and loses energy.

D) loses electrons and gains energy.

E) neither gains nor loses electrons, but gains or loses power.


When electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom, what happens?

A) Energy is released.

B) Energy is consumed.

C) The more electronegative atom is diminished.

D) The even more electronegative atom is oxidized.

E) A and also C are correct.


Why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to create CO2 and water release free energy?

A) The covalent bonds in organic molecules are better power bonds than those in water and also carbon dioxide.

B) Electrons are being relocated from atoms that have a reduced affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as O).

C) The oxidation of organic compounds deserve to be provided to make ATP.

D) The electrons have a greater potential power once connected via water and CO 2 than they execute in organic compounds.

E) The covalent bond in O2 is unsecure and also easily broken by electrons from organic molecules.


Answer: B


5

Which of the following statements explains the results of this reaction? C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

A) C6H12O6 is oxidized and also O2 is reduced.

B) O2 is oxidized and also H2O is reduced.

C) CO2 is reduced and O2 is oxidized.

D) C6H12O6 is decreased and CO2 is oxidized.

E) O2 is reduced and CO2 is oxidized.


Answer: A


6

When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the outcome of an oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes

A) dehydrogenated.

B) hydrogenated.

C) oxidized.

D) decreased.

E) an oxidizing agent.


Answer: C


7

When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a hydrogen ion) the molecule becomes

A) hydrogenated.

B) oxidized.

C) decreased.

D) redoxed.

E) a reducing agent.


Answer: C


8

Which of the adhering to statements explains NAD+?

A) NAD+ is decreased to NADH in the time of both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

B) NAD+ has actually more chemical energy than NADH.

C) NAD+ is lessened by the activity of hydrogenases.

D) NAD+ have the right to donate electrons for use in oxidative phosphorylation.

E) In the lack of NAD+, glycolysis have the right to still attribute.


Answer: A


9

Wbelow does glycolysis takes place?

A) mitochondrial matrix

B) mitochondrial external membrane

C) mitochondrial inner membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) cytosol


Answer: E


10

The ATP made throughout glycolysis is generated by

A) substrate-level phosphorylation.

B) electron move.

C) photophosphorylation.

D) chemiosmosis.

E) oxidation of NADH to NAD+.


Answer: A


11

The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is associated straight in which procedure or event?

A) glycolysis

B) accepting electrons at the finish of the electron deliver chain

C) the citric acid cycle

D) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

E) the phosphorylation of ADP to develop ATP


Answer: B


12

Which procedure in eukaryotic cells will proceed usually whether oxygen (O2) is existing or absent?

A) electron transport

B) glycolysis

C) the citric acid cycle

D) oxidative phosphorylation

E) chemiosmosis


Answer: B


13

An electron loses potential energy once it

A) shifts to a less electronegative atom.

B) shifts to a more electronegative atom.

C) boosts its kinetic energy.

D) rises its task as an oxidizing agent.

E) attaches itself to NAD+.


Answer: B


14

Why are carbohydprices and also fats considered high energy foods?

A) They have many oxygen atoms.

B) They have actually no nitrogen in their makeup. C) They have the right to have actually extremely lengthy carbon skelelots. D) They have actually the majority of electrons linked with hydrogen.

E) They are conveniently diminished.


Answer: D


15
*

Which step reflects a separation of one molecule right into 2 smaller molecules?


Answer: B


16
*

In which step is an inorganic phosphate added to the reactant?


Answer: C


17
*

In which reaction does an intermediate pathmeans become oxidized?


Answer: C


18
*

Which action entails an endergonic reaction?


Answer: A


19
*

Which step consists of a phosphorylation reactivity in which ATP is the phosphate source?


Answer: A


20

Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed during glycolysis?

A) 0%

B) 2%

C) 10%

D) 38%

E) 100%


Answer: E


21

During glycolysis, once glucose is catabolized to pyruvate, the majority of of the power of glucose is

A) moved to ADP, creating ATP.

B) transferred directly to ATP.

C) preserved in the pyruvate.

D) stored in the NADH developed.

E) provided to phosphorylate fructose to form fructose-6-phosphate.


Answer: C


22

In addition to ATP, what are the end assets of glycolysis?

A) CO2 and also H2O

B) CO2 and also pyruvate

C) NADH and also pyruvate

D) CO2 and also NADH

E) H2O, FADH2, and citrate


Answer: C


23

The complimentary power for the oxidation of glucose to CO2 and also water is -686 kcal/mole and also the free power for the reduction of NAD+ to NADH is +53 kcal/mole. Why are just two molecules of NADH developed during glycolysis once it appears that as many as a dozen might be formed?

A) Most of the cost-free power obtainable from the oxidation of glucose is offered in the manufacturing of ATP in glycolysis.

B) Glycolysis is a very inreliable reaction, through much of the power of glucose released as heat.

C) Many of the totally free power available from the oxidation of glucose continues to be in pyruvate, among the products of glycolysis

D) There is no CO2 or water created as assets of glycolysis.

E) Glycolysis consists of many type of enzymatic reactions, each of which extracts some power from the glucose molecule.


Answer: C


24

Starting via one molecule of glucose, the ʺnetʺ assets of glycolysis are A) 2 NAD+, 2 H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 H2O.

B) 2 NADH, 2 H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and also 2 H2O.

C) 2 FADH2, 2 pyruvate, 4 ATP, and also 2 H2O.

D) 6 CO2, 6 H2O, 2 ATP, and 2 pyruvate.

E) 6 CO2, 6 H2O, 36 ATP, and 2 citprice.


Answer: B


25

In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate

A) 2 molecules of ATP are used and 2 molecules of ATP are created.

B) 2 molecules of ATP are used and 4 molecules of ATP are developed.

C) 4 molecules of ATP are used and also 2 molecules of ATP are created.

D) 2 molecules of ATP are provided and also 6 molecules of ATP are developed.

E) 6 molecules of ATP are provided and 6 molecules of ATP are created.


Answer: B


26

A molecule that is phosphorylated

A) has been diminished as a result of a redox reaction entailing the loss of an not natural phosphate.

B) has actually a lessened chemical reactivity; it is less likely to carry out energy for cellular occupational.

C) has been oxidized as a result of a redox reactivity entailing the gain of an not natural phosphate.

D) has an raised chemical reactivity; it is primed to perform cellular job-related.

E) has actually much less energy than before its phosphorylation and also therefore much less energy for cellular occupational.


Answer: D


27

Which type of metabolic poiboy would many straight interfere via glycolysis?

A) an agent that reacts with oxygen and also depletes its concentration in the cell

B) an agent that binds to pyruvate and inactivates it

C) an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose yet is not metabolized

D) an agent that reacts with NADH and also oxidizes it to NADVERTISEMENT +

E) an agent that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transfer chain


Answer: C


28

Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?

A) It both splits molecules and also assembles molecules.

B) It attaches and detaches phosphate teams.

C) It offers glucose and generates pyruvate.

D) It shifts molecules from cytosol to mitochondrion.

E) It offers stored ATP and then develops a net boost in ATP.


Answer: E


29

In the existence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate deserve to be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate 1) loses a carbon, which is provided off as a molecule of CO2, 2) is oxidized to create a two-carbon compound dubbed acetate, and also 3) is bonded to coenzyme A.

These 3 measures cause the development of

A) acetyl CoA, O2, and also ATP.

B) acetyl CoA, FADH2, and CO2.

C) acetyl CoA, FAD, H2, and also CO2.

D) acetyl CoA, NADH, H+, and also CO2.

E) acetyl CoA, NAD+, ATP, and CO2.


Answer: D


30

In the presence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate have the right to be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate 1) loses a carbon, which is offered off as a molecule of CO2, 2) is oxidized to create a two-carbon compound called acetate, and 3) is bonded to coenzyme A.

Why is coenzyme A, a sulfur containing molecule obtained from a B vitamin, added?

A) bereason sulhair is needed for the molecule to enter the mitochondrion

B) in order to use this portion of a B vitamin which would otherwise be a waste product from an additional pathway

C) to carry out a relatively unsecure molecule whose acetyl percentage can readily bind to oxaloacetate

D) because it drives the reaction that regeneprices NAD+

E) in order to remove one molecule of CO2


Answer: C


31

How does pyruvate enter the mitochondrion?

A) energetic transport

B) diffusion

C) assisted in diffusion

D) through a channel

E) via a pore


Answer: A


32

Which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is developed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO2) from one molecule of pyruvate?

A) lactate

B) glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate

C) oxaloacetate

D) acetyl CoA

E) citrate


Answer: D


33

Throughout cellular respiration, acetyl CoA accumulates in which location?

A) cytosol

B) mitochondrial external membrane

C) mitochondrial inner membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) mitochondrial matrix


Answer: E


34

How many carbon atoms are fed right into the citric acid cycle as an outcome of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

D) 8

E) 10


Answer: A


35
*

Starting through one molecule of isocitprice and also finishing with fumarate, what is the maximum variety of ATP molecules that can be made through substrate-level phosphorylation?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 11

D) 12

E) 24


Answer: A


36

Carbon skelelots for amino acid biosynthesis are gave by intermediates of the citric acid cycle. Which intermediate would supply the carbon skeleton for synthesis of a five-carbon amino acid?

A) succinate

B) malate

C) citrate

D) α-ketoglutarate

E) isocitrate


Answer: D


37

How many molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2) would be developed by 5 turns of the citric acid cycle?

A) 2

B) 5

C) 10

D) 12

E) 60


Answer: C


38

How many reduced dinucleotides would certainly be developed with four turns of the citric acid cycle?

A) 1 FADH2 and 4 NADH

B) 2 FADH2 and 8 NADH

C) 4 FADH2 and 12 NADH

D) 1 FADVERTISEMENT and also 4 NAD+

E) 4 FAD+ and 12 NAD+


Answer: C


39

Starting with citrate, which of the complying with combinations of products would certainly result from 3 transforms of the citric acid cycle?

A) 1 ATP, 2 CO2, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2

B) 2 ATP, 2 CO2, 1 NADH, and also 3 FADH2

C) 3 ATP, 3 CO2, 3 NADH, and also 3 FADH2

D) 3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2

E) 38 ATP, 6 CO2, 3 NADH, and also 12 FADH2


Answer: D


40

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released throughout which of the following steras of cellular respiration?

A) glycolysis and also the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

B) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

C) the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

D) oxidative phosphorylation and also fermentation

E) fermentation and glycolysis


Answer: B


41

For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle, what is the total variety of NADH + FADH2 molecules produced?

A) 4

B) 5

C) 6

D) 10

E) 12


Answer: E


42

A young pet has never had actually a lot power. He is carried to a veterinarian for aid and also is sent to the animal hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanation of his condition?

A) His mitochondria lack the deliver protein that moves pyruvate throughout the outer mitochondrial membrane.

B) His cells cannot relocate NADH from glycolysis into the mitochondria.

C) His cells contain somepoint that inhibits oxygen use in his mitochondria.

D) His cells absence the enzyme in glycolysis that creates pyruvate.

E) His cells have a defective electron transport chain, so glucose goes to lactate rather of to acetyl CoA.


Answer: A


43

Cellular respiration harvests the a lot of chemical power from which of the following?

A) substrate-level phosphorylation

B) chemiosmotic phosphorylation

C) converting oxygen to ATP

D) transporting electrons from organic molecules to pyruvate

E) generating carbon dioxide and also oxygen in the electron transfer chain


Answer: B


44

Throughout aerobic respiration, electrons take a trip downhill in which sequence? A) food → citric acid cycle → ATP → NAD+

B) food → NADH → electron move chain → oxygen

C) glucose → pyruvate → ATP → oxygen

D) glucose → ATP → electron transport chain → NADH

E) food → glycolysis → citric acid cycle → NADH → ATP


Answer: B


45

Where are the proteins of the electron deliver chain located?

A) cytosol

B) mitochondrial external membrane

C) mitochondrial inner membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) mitochondrial matrix


Answer: C


46

Which of the following defines the sequence of electron carriers in the electron transport chain, starting with the least electronegative?

A) ubiquinone (Q), cytochromes (Cyt), FMN, Fe•S

B) cytochromes (Cyt), FMN, ubiquinone, Fe•S

C) Fe•S, FMN, cytochromes (Cyt), ubiquinone

D) FMN, Fe•S, ubiquinone, cytochromes (Cyt)

E) cytochromes (Cyt), Fe•S, ubiquinone, FMN


Answer: D


47

Throughout aerobic respiration, which of the adhering to straight donates electrons to the electron transport chain at the lowest energy level?

A) NAD+

B) NADH

C) ATP

D) ADP + Pi

E) FADH2


Answer: E


48

The major duty of oxygen in cellular respiration is to

A) yield power in the develop of ATP as it is passed down the respiratory chain.

B) act as an acceptor for electrons and also hydrogen, creating water.

C) integrate via carbon, forming CO2.

D) combine with lactate, forming pyruvate.

E) catalyze the reactions of glycolysis.


Answer: B


49

Inside an active mitochondrion, the majority of electrons follow which pathway?

A) glycolysis → NADH → oxidative phosphorylation → ATP → oxygen

B) citric acid cycle → FADH2 → electron transfer chain → ATP

C) electron carry chain → citric acid cycle → ATP → oxygen

D) pyruvate → citric acid cycle → ATP → NADH → oxygen

E) citric acid cycle → NADH → electron deliver chain → oxygen


Answer: E


50

During oxidative phosphorylation, H2O is formed. Wbelow does the oxygen for the synthesis of the water come from?

A) carbon dioxide (CO2)

B) glucose (C6H12O6)

C) molecular oxygen (O2)

D) pyruvate (C3H3O3-)

E) lactate (C3H5O3-)


Answer: C


51

In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the the majority of straight resource of power that is used to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?

A) energy released as electrons circulation through the electron transport system

B) energy released from substrate-level phosphorylation

C) power released from ATP synthase pumping hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix

D) energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase

E) No outside resource of power is compelled bereason the reaction is exergonic.


Answer: D


52

Energy released by the electron move chain is supplied to pump H + ions right into which location?

A) cytosol

B) mitochondrial external membrane

C) mitochondrial inner membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) mitochondrial matrix


Answer: D


53

The direct energy source that drives ATP synthesis throughout respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is

A) oxidation of glucose to CO2 and also water.

B) the thermodynamically favorable flow of electrons from NADH to the mitochondrial electron transfer carriers.

C) the last carry of electrons to oxygen.

D) the distinction in H+ concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

E) the thermodynamically favorable transport of phosphate from glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle intermediate molecules of ADP.


Answer: D


54

When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix throughout the inner membrane and also into the intermembrane room, the result is the

A) development of ATP.

B) reduction of NAD+.

C) restoration of the Na+/K+ balance throughout the membrane.

D) development of a proton gradient.

E) lowering of pH in the mitochondrial matrix.


Answer: D


55

Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?

A) cytosol

B) electron transport chain

C) outer membrane

D) inner membrane

E) mitochondrial matrix


Answer: D


56

It is feasible to prepare vesicles from parts of the inner membrane of the mitochondrial components. Which among the adhering to procedures can still be brought on by this isolated inner membrane?

A) the citric acid cycle

B) oxidative phosphorylation

C) glycolysis and fermentation

D) reduction of NAD+

E) both the citric acid cycle and also oxidative phosphorylation


Answer: B


57

Each time a molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) is entirely oxidized via aerobic respiration, exactly how many kind of oxygen molecules (O2) are required?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 6

D) 12

E) 38


Answer: C


58

Which of the adhering to produces the many ATP as soon as glucose (C6H12O6) is totally oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and also water?

A) glycolysis

B) fermentation

C) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

D) citric acid cycle

E) oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)


Answer: E


59

Approximately how many type of molecules of ATP are developed from the finish oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C6H12O6) in cellular respiration?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 15

D) 38

E) 76


Answer: E


60

Assume a mitochondrion consists of 58 NADH and also 19 FADH2. If each of the 77 dinucleotides were used, about exactly how many ATP molecules can be generated as an outcome of oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)?

A) 36

B) 77

C) 173

D) 212

E) 1102


Answer: D


61

Approximately what percent of the energy of glucose (C6H12O6) is moved to storage in ATP as an outcome of the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and also water in cellular respiration?

A) 2%

B) 4%

C) 10%

D) 25%

E) 40%


Answer: E


62

Recontact that the complete oxidation of a mole of glucose releases 686 kcal of power (Δ G = -686 kcal/mol). The phosphorylation of ADP to develop ATP stores around 7.3 kcal per mole of ATP. What is the approximate effectiveness of cellular respiration for a ʺmutantʺ organism that produces only 29 moles of ATP for eincredibly mole of glucose oxidized, rather than the usual 36-38 moles of ATP?

A) 0.4%

B) 25%

C) 30%

D) 40%

E) 60%


Answer: C


63

What is proton-motive force?

A) the force required to remove an electron from hydrogen

B) the transmembrane proton concentration gradient

C) movement of hydrogen right into the intermembrane area

D) activity of hydrogen right into the mitochondrion

E) the addition of hydrogen to NAD+


Answer: B


64

In liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membranes are around 5 X the area of the external mitochondrial membranes, and around 17 X that of the cellʹs plasma membrane. What objective have to this serve?

A) It allows for boosted rate of glycolysis. B) It enables for raised rate of the citric acid cycle.

C) It boosts the surconfront for oxidative phosphoryation. D) It increases the surconfront for substrate-level phosphorylation.

E) It permits the liver cell to have actually fewer mitochondria.


Answer: C


65

Exposing inner mitochondrial membranes to ultrasonic vibrations will certainly disrupt the membranes. However before, the pieces will reseal ʺinside out.ʺ These bit vesicles that result have the right to still deliver electrons from NADH to oxygen and synthedimension ATP. If the membranes are agitated still even more however, the capability to synthedimension ATP is shed.

After the first disruption, when electron carry and also ATP synthedimension still occur, what need to be present?

A) every one of the electron deliver proteins and ATP synthase

B) all of the electron transfer device and the capability to include CoA to acetyl groups

C) the ATP synthase device is sufficient

D) the electron carry device is sufficient

E) plasma membranes favor those bacteria use for respiration


Answer: A


66

Exposing inner mitochondrial membranes to ultrasonic vibrations will disrupt the membranes. However, the pieces will reseal ʺinside out.ʺ These bit vesicles that outcome can still carry electrons from NADH to oxygen and synthesize ATP. If the membranes are agitated still additionally yet, the capacity to synthedimension ATP is shed.

After the second agitation of the membrane vesicles, what should be lost from the membrane?

A) the capability of NADH to move electrons to the initially acceptor in the electron transfer chain

B) the prosthetic groups like heme from the transport system

C) cytochromes

D) ATP synthase, in totality or in partuter membrane surfaces


Answer: D


67

Exposing inner mitochondrial membranes to ultrasonic vibrations will disrupt the membranes. However, the pieces will certainly reseal ʺinside out.ʺ These little bit vesicles that outcome can still deliver electrons from NADH to oxygen and synthesize ATP. If the membranes are agitated still better however, the ability to synthesize ATP is lost.

It must be feasible to reconstitute the abilities of the vesicles if which of the adhering to is added?

A) cytochromes

B) additional NADH

C) a 2nd membrane surface

D) even more electrons

E) intact ATP synthase


Answer: E


68
*

The accompanying number mirrors the electron transfer chain. Which of the complying with is the combicountry of substances that is initially added to the chain?

A) oxygen, carbon dioxide, and also water

B) NAD+ , FADVERTISEMENT, and also electrons

C) NADH, FADH2, and also protons

D) NADH, FADH2, and also electrons

E) Oxygen and also electrons


Answer: D


69
*

Which of the following a lot of accurately describes what is happening alengthy this chain?

A) Chemiosmosis is coupled via electron move.

B) Each electron carrier alternates in between being decreased and also being oxidized.

C) ATP is produced at each action.

D) Energy of the electrons boosts at each step.

E) Molecules in the chain provide up some of their potential energy.


Answer: B


70
*

The parts of the figure labeled via Roman numerals represent what concept?

A) different inner mitochondrial membranes

B) various mitochondria functioning together

C) molecules through various attached steel ions

D) carbohydrate framework holding the molecules in place

E) multimeric teams of proteins in 4 complexes


Answer: E


71
*

What happens at the end of the chain?

A) The 2 original electrons incorporate via NAD+.

B) The 2 original electrons integrate with oxygen.

C) 4 electrons incorporate via oxygen and also protons.

D) 4 electrons combine via hydrogen and also oxygen atoms.

E) 1 electron combines through oxygen and also hydrogen.


Answer: C


72

Which of the following couples chemiosmosis to energy storage?

A) NADH

B) FADH2

C) cytochromes

D) electron transport

E) ATP synthase


Answer: E


73

Which of the adhering to defines ubiquinone?

A) a protein in the electron move chain

B) a small hydrophobic coenzyme

C) a substprice for synthesis of FADH

D) a vitamin required for effective glycolysis

E) a vital amino acid


Answer: B


74

Which of the adhering to generally occurs whether or not oxygen (O2) is present?

A) glycolysis

B) fermentation

C) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

D) citric acid cycle

E) oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)


Answer: A


75

Which of the complying with occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

A) glycolysis and fermentation

B) fermentation and chemiosmosis

C) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

D) citric acid cycle

E) oxidative phosphorylation


Answer: A


76

Which metabolic pathmethod is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation?

A) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

B) the citric acid cycle

C) oxidative phosphorylation

D) glycolysis

E) chemiosmosis


Answer: D


77

The ATP made throughout fermentation is generated by which of the following?

A) the electron carry chain

B) substrate-level phosphorylation

C) chemiosmosis

D) oxidative phosphorylation

E) aerobic respiration


Answer: B


78

In the lack of oxygen, yeastern cells deserve to achieve energy by fermentation, leading to the production of

A) ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).

B) ATP, CO2, and also lactate.

C) ATP, NADH, and also pyruvate.

D) ATP, pyruvate, and oxygen.

E) ATP, pyruvate, and acetyl CoA.


Answer: A


79

In alcohol fermentation, NAD+ is regenerated from NADH during which of the following?

A) reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

B) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

C) reduction of pyruvate to develop lactate

D) oxidation of NAD+ in the citric acid cycle

E) phosphorylation of ADP to develop ATP


Answer: A


80

One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to

A) mitigate NAD+ to NADH.

B) mitigate FAD+ to FADH2.

C) oxidize NADH to NAD+.

D) reduce FADH2 to FAD+.

E) namong the above


Answer: C


81

An organism is discovered that consumes a substantial amount of sugar, yet does not acquire a lot weight when denied air. Curiously, the usage of sugar rises as air is rerelocated from the organismʹs atmosphere, yet the organism appears to thrive even in the absence of air. When went back to normal air, the organism does fine. Which of the complying with ideal explains the organism?

A) It should usage a molecule various other than oxygen to accept electrons from the electron transport chain.

B) It is a normal eukaryotic organism.

C) The organism obviously lacks the citric acid cycle and also electron transfer chain.

D) It is an anaerobic organism.

E) It is a facultative anaerobe.


Answer: E


82

Glycolysis is thshould be one of the a lot of ancient of metabolic processes. Which statement supports this idea?

A) Glycolysis is the a lot of widespread metabolic pathmeans.

B) Glycolysis neither uses nor requirements O2.

C) Glycolysis is discovered in all eukaryotic cells.

D) The enzymes of glycolysis are uncovered in the cytosol fairly than in a membrane -enclosed organelle.

E) Ancient prokaryotic cells, the the majority of primitive of cells, made considerable use of glycolysis lengthy prior to oxygen was present in Earthʹs environment.


Answer: A


83

Why is glycolysis taken into consideration to be among the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?

A) It produces a lot less ATP than does oxidative phosphorylation.

B) It is found in the cytosol, does not involve oxygen, and is present in many organisms.

C) It is uncovered in prokaryotic cells however not in eukaryotic cells.

D) It depends on chemiosmosis which is a metabolic system existing just in the initially cells-prokaryotic cells.

E) It calls for the presence of membrane-enclosed cell organelles found only in eukaryotic cells.


Answer: B


84

Muscle cells, when an individual is exercising heavily and once the muscle becomes oxygen deprived, transform pyruvate to lactate. What happens to the lactate in skeletal muscle cells?

A) It is converted to NAD+.

B) It produces CO2 and also water.

C) It is taken to the liver and also converted earlier to pyruvate.

D) It reduces FADH2 to FAD+.

E) It is converted to alcohol.


Answer: C


85

When muscle cells are oxygen deprived, the heart still pumps. What have to the heart cells be able to do?

A) derive adequate energy from fermentation

B) proceed aerobic metabolism once skeletal muscle cannot C) transform lactate to pyruvate again

D) rerelocate lactate from the blood

E) rerelocate oxygen from lactate


Answer: B


86

When muscle cells undergo anaerobic respiration, they end up being fatigued and painful. This is now recognized to be resulted in by

A) buildup of pyruvate.

B) buildup of lactate.

C) rise in sodium ions.

D) boost in potassium ions.

E) increase in ethanol.


Answer: D


87

vYou have actually a friend who shed 7 kg (around 15 pounds) of fat on a ʺlow carbʺ diet. How did the fat leave her body?

A) It was released as CO2 and H2O.

B) Chemical power was converted to warmth and then released.

C) It was converted to ATP, which weighs much much less than fat.

D) It was damaged dvery own to amino acids and eliminated from the body.

E) It was converted to urine and also removed from the body.


Answer: A


88

Phosphofructokinase is a vital control enzyme in the regulation of cellular respiration. Which of the following statements defines a function of phosphofructokinase?

A) It is caused by AMP (obtained from ADP).

B) It is triggered by ATP.

C) It is inhibited by citprice, an intermediate of the citric acid cycle.

D) It catalyzes the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate, an early action of glycolysis.

E) It is an allosteric enzyme.


Answer: E


89

Phosphofructokinase is an allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of fructose -6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, a very early action of glycolysis. In the presence of oxygen, an increase in the amount ATP in a cell would certainly be expected to

A) inhilittle bit the enzyme and therefore sluggish the rates of glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle.

B) activate the enzyme and also therefore slow the rates of glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle.

C) inhilittle the enzyme and for this reason boost the rates of glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle.

D) activate the enzyme and also boost the prices of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

E) inhilittle the enzyme and thus boost the rate of glycolysis and the concentration of citprice.


Answer: A


90

Even though plants bring on photosynthesis, plant cells still use their mitochondria for oxidation of pyruvate. When and where will certainly this occur?

A) in photofabricated cells in the light, while photosynthesis occurs concurrently

B) in non-photomanufacturing cells only

C) in cells that are storing glucose only

D) in photomanufacturing cells in dark periods and also in various other tworries all the time

E) in photomanufacturing cells in the light and also in various other tconcerns in the dark


Answer: D


91

In vertebrate pets, brown fat tissueʹs color is as a result of numerous mitochondria. White fat tworry, on the various other hand, is specialized for fat storage and also consists of reasonably few mitochondria. Brown fat cells have a committed protein that dissipates the proton-motive force throughout the mitochondrial membranes. Which of the adhering to can be the attribute of the brown fat tissue?

A) to increase the rate of oxidative phosphorylation from its few mitochondria

B) to enable the pets to regulate their metabolic rate once it is particularly hot

C) to rise the manufacturing of ATP synthase

D) to enable other membranes of the cell to percreate mitochondrial function

E) to regulate temperature by converting energy from NADH oxidation to heat


Answer: E


92

What is the purpose of beta oxidation in respiration?

A) oxidation of glucose

B) oxidation of pyruvate

C) feedago regulation

D) manage of ATP accumulation

E) breakdown of fatty acids


Answer: E


93

Wright here perform the catabolic assets of fatty acid breakdown enter right into the citric acid cycle?

A) pyruvate

B) malate or fumarate

C) acetyl CoA

D) α-ketoglutarate

E) succinyl CoA


Answer: C


94

What is the reducing agent in the following reaction?

Pyruvate + NADH + H+ → Lactate + NAD+

A) oxygen

B) NADH

C) NAD+ D) lactate

E) pyruvat


Answer: B


95

The prompt power source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is

A) the oxidation of glucose and also other organic compounds.

B) the flow of electrons down the electron move chain.

C) the affinity of oxygen for electrons.

D) the H+ concentration gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

E) the transport of phosphate to ADP.


Answer: D


96

Which metabolic pathmethod is prevalent to both fermentation and also cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?

A) the citric acid cycle

B) the electron transfer chain

C) glycolysis

D) synthesis of acetyl CoA from pyruvate

E) reduction of pyruvate to lactate


Answer: C


97

In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions

A) are the resource of power driving prokaryotic ATP synthesis.

B) are straight coupcaused substrate-level phosphorylation.

C) provide the energy that creates the proton gradient.

D) mitigate carbon atoms to carbon dioxide.

E) are coupled by means of phosphorylated intermediates to endergonic processes.


Answer: C


98

The final electron acceptor of the electron deliver chain that features in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is

A) oxygen.

B) water.

C) NAD+.

D) pyruvate.

E) ADP.


Answer: A


99

When electrons flow along the electron carry chains of mitochondria, which of the complying with transforms occurs?

A) The pH of the matrix rises.

B) ATP synthase pumps proloads by active deliver.

C) The electrons acquire free power.

D) The cytochromes phosphorylate ADP to develop ATP.

E) NAD+ is oxidized.


Answer: A


100

Cells perform not catabolize carbon dioxide because

A) its double bonds are as well steady to be broken.

B) CO2 has fewer bonding electrons than other organic compounds.

C) CO2 is already entirely diminished.

D) CO2 is already entirely oxidized.

See more: Why Is Much Ado About Nothing A Comedy Much Ado About Nothing

E) the molecule has too few atoms.


Answer: D


101

Which of the adhering to is a true difference between fermentation and also cellular respiration?