Dark Romanticism is a genre steeped in complex emotions and expressions of individualism. We hope this guide is particularly advantageous for students and teachers.

You are watching: Which of the following is a genre of american romanticism

Outline of Dark Romanticism, Exemplary Works, Etymology & Historical Context, Quotes, Discussion Questions, Useful Links, and also Notes/Teacher Comments


*
The Scarlet Letter

First, let"s address the definition of Romanticism. It values beliefs and also eactivities as even more necessary than logic or facts. The individual comes initially, and also regularly requires the worship of nature (or a whale?). Dark Romanticism is distinguished from Romanticism in its focus on humale fallibility and sin (they are pessimists), whereas Romantics believe in huguy goodness (they are optimists). According to Dark Romantics, even excellent males and also woguys drift towards sin and also self-devastation, and tbelow deserve to be unintended consequences that arise from well-intfinished social recreates.

The genre of "Dark Romanticism" is thneed to have actually emerged from the Transcendental Movement in 19th century America. Whereas Transcendentalists felt perfection and also their very own divinity as inherent characteristics of mantype (they thiought utopian communes would work), Dark Romantics thought people gravitate to evil and also self-destruction (striving for a utopian society is a waste of time). Stories in this genre share many kind of qualities of Realism (tell it prefer it is, what can go wrong, will). Dark Romantics emphasis on humale fallibility, self-devastation, judgement, punishment, as well as the emotional results of guilt and sin. Authors that embrace this genre include Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Emily Dickinkid. There"s an also darker side of the Dark Romantics: Gothic Literature, which involves sheer terror, individual torment, graphic morbidity, and also the superorganic.

Here"s a useful overwatch of the features, beginning, and exemplar authors to assist you much better understand Dark Romanticism. You can also enjoy H.L. Mencken"s analysis of New Puritanism, Puritanism As a Literary Force.


*
The Fall of the House of Usher

Exemplary Works


Moby-Dick; or, The Whale by Hermale Melville is one of the the majority of known novels in the genre of Dark Romanticism. Melville"s Captain Ahab is the protoform of humale fallibility, and he draws upon amble Biblical allusions (consisting of his character names) centering on themes of judgement, guilt, sin, souls, and also the end of the human being. See Moby-Cock - Study Guide

The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne exemplifies Dark Romanticism in its themes of implemented judgement and punishment for those who commit sin, leading to alienation and also self-destruction. Hawthorne"s a lot of renowned novel examined the humale spirit and our morality-- absolutely a cautionary tale about the threats of well-intended social redevelop and blind spiritual fervor. While Hawthorne dappled in numerous genres, consisting of Transcendentalism, he found his niche in Dark Romanticism, albeit on the less pessimistic side. He thought that for every one of our weaknesses, hypocrisy and also enduring, "the fact of the human heart" generally prevails. Anvarious other exemplary work-related of Dark Romanticism is his story, Young Goodguy Brown.

Practically all of Edgar Allan Poe"s canon drops in the Dark Romantic genre, in which he explored the psychology of the aware and also subaware mind. A Descent Into the Maelstrom is a fine example. Many kind of of Poe"s works are on the dark end of the Dark Romantic spectrum, right into the realm of Gothic Fiction via macabre tales of horror, morbidity, and madness. Fine example: The Fall of the House of Usher, which deals with mental conditions such as hypochondria and also hyperethesia (sensory overload). Poe was also attributed as the creator of the detective fiction genre, as in his story, The Purloined Letter. Poe literally offered a theme for detective authors to follow, consisting of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. A fun fact about Poe: he really disliked Transcendentalists, referring to them as "Frogpondians" (after the pool in Boston Commons).

Emily Dickinson tested the interpretations of poeattempt and exemplify Dark Romanticism. It"s renowned that she led an significantly reclusive life, afflicted by significant depression, and never before observed success throughout her life time (she passed away at 56). Yet, her creative power, willingness to fight conventions (no titles, short lines), and prolific creating (she wrote virtually 1,800 poems in her life time, however publimelted very few) establiburned her literary prowess and blazed a trail for various other poets and women authors to follow.


*
Due to the fact that I Could Not Sheight for Death

The etymology of the word "Romanticism" is from the Latin word "romant" which suggests "in the Roman manner." It became recognized as a style of art, literary works, and also music that attracted on emotions, intuition, and creative thinking, rather than rationality and also scientific research. While the Romantic Movement began in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, it moved to America in the at an early stage 1ninth century.

American Romanticism authors were most prolific in between 1830-1865. Within the genre of Romanticism, 2 opposing sub-genres emerged: the optimists who thought in human goodness and spirituality, thrived in to the Transcendentalism Movement; the pessimists, that taken on humale fallibility and our predisposition towards sin, thrived right into the Dark Romantic Movement. The Dark Romantics were attracted to the dark side of the human psyche, the evil side of spiritual reality. The Dark Romantics rebelled against the Puritans, who came to the nation to escape persecution, yet enforced their very own faith and also societal rules (government) on others, judging those who did not condevelop. These authors were attracted to human"s imperfections, self-destruction, sin, and also the hazards of social reform. Authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne composed extensively around persecution of minorities in America, as in The Scarlet Letter, and The Maypole of Merry Mount.


*
A Descent Into the Maelstrom

It is beneficial to understand the historic backdrop for the appearance of the Dark Romantics and also the Transcendentalists. America had established itself as an independent nation, and also was struggling via the principles of slaexceptionally, social recreates, and the civil liberties of the minority. Abraham Lincoln climbed to power leading the country with a truly distinctive Amerihave the right to voice-- eloquent, yet straightforward and also coarse language embracing the country"s failures, triumph, and tragedy. His fallibility was extremely much in-line with the Dark Romantic authors who published their major works quickly prior to the American Civil War and also its messy after-effects right into the Rebuilding and construction era. The Scarlet Letter was publimelted in 1850, the same year Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale was publiburned a year later on.

The Transcendentalists were busy at this very same time in history: Thoreau"s Walden was publiburned in 1854, Whitman"s Leaves of Grass a year later (1855). In 1865, the Civil War finished, Lincoln was assassinated, slaincredibly was abolimelted. The nation was no longer naive, even more cynical, and also a lot wiser than it had actually been a half century earlier, an ambivalence-- balancing pessimism and also optimism-- that was reflected in the functions of so many of the period"s authors. Visit Amerideserve to History in Literature

Here is a fantastic summary of Important Events during the Romantic Period (1825-1910), which encompasses an amazing musical background as well.


*
The Minister"s Black Veil

Exordinary what the following quotes definition and why they are exemplars of Dark Romanticism:

"Cannibals? Who is not a cannibal? I tell you it will certainly be more tolerable for the Fejee that salted dvery own a lean missionary in his cellar versus a coming famine; it will certainly be more tolerable for that provident Fejee, I say, in the day of judgement, than for thee, civilized and enlightened gourmand, that nailest geese to the ground and also feastest on their bloated livers in thy pate de fois gras.” -- Herman Melville"s Moby-Dick; or, The Whale

"My Faith is gone!" cried he, after one stupefied minute. "Tbelow is no excellent on earth; and sin is however a name. Come, devil; for to thee is this world given." -- Nathaniel Hawthorne"s Young Goodguy Brown

"The totality forest was peopled through frightful sounds—the creaking of the trees, the howling of wild beasts, and also the yell of Indians; while periodically the wind tolled choose a remote church bell, and also periodically gave a large roar about the traveller, as if all Nature were laughing him to scorn. But he was himself the chief horror of the scene, and also shrank not from its other horrors." -- Nathaniel Hawthorne"s Young Goodmale Brown

"Such was the result of this basic item of crepe, that more than one woguy of breakable nerves was compelled to leave the meetingresidence. Yet probably the pale-faced congregation was virtually as fearful a sight to the minister, as his black veil to them...A subtle power was breathed into his words. Each member of the congregation, the many innocent girl, and also the guy of hardened breastern, felt as if the preacher had actually crept upon them, behind his awful veil, and also found their hoarded iniquity of deed or assumed." -- Nathaniel Hawthorne"s The Minister"s Babsence Veil


*
Edgar Allan Poe

"An excited and also very distempered ideality threw a sulphureous lustre over all. His lengthy improvised dirges will certainly ring forever in my ears. Amongst other points, I hold paincompletely in mind a details singular pervariation and also amplification of the wild air of the last waltz of Von Weber. From the paintings over which his sophisticated intricate brooded, and also which thrived, touch by touch, into vaguenesses at which I shuddered the even more thrillingly, bereason I shuddered understanding not why." -- Edgar Allan Poe"s The Fall of the Housage of Usher

Yet if hope has actually flown awayIn a night, or in a day,In a vision, or in none,Is it therefore the less gone?All that we check out or seemIs but a dream within a dream. -- Edgar Allan Poe"s A Dream Within A Dream

"I observed the lips of the black-robed judges. They showed up to me white--whiter than the sheet upon which I trace these words--and also thin also to grotesqueness; thin through the intensity of their expression of firmness, of immovable resolution, of stern contempt of huguy torture." -- Edgar Allan Poe"s The Pit and also the Pendulum


Due to the fact that I can not speak for Death,He kindly stopped for me;The carriage organized however just ourselvesAnd Immortality. -- Emily Dickinson"s Due to the fact that I Could Not Sheight for Death

As all the heavens were a bell,And Being however an ear,And I and silence some strange race,Wrecked, solitary, here. -- Emily Dickinson"s I Felt a Funeral in My Brain

“No, dearemainder Georgiana, you came so practically perfect from the hand also of Nature that this slightest possible defect, which we hesitate whether to term a defect or a beauty, shocks me, as being the visible mark of earthly imperfection." "Shocks you, my husband!" cried Georgiana, deeply hurt; at first reddening through temporary anger, yet then bursting into tears. "Then why did you take me from my mother"s side? You cannot love what shocks you!" -- Nathaniel Hawthorne"s The Birthmark


1. Identify the attributes of Dark Romanticism as expressed in functions by American authors.

2. Explain the distinction in between "Romanticism" and "Dark Romanticism."

3. How does Gothic Literature differ from "Dark Romanticism"?

4. Nathaniel Hawthorne began his composing career thought about a Romantic author, then relocated in the direction of Transcendentalism, before rejecting it in favor of the genre of his best success: "Dark Romanticism." Find an instance of his work from each of these genres and discuss their contrasting styles.

5. Discuss the therapy of morality and also social conventions (peer pressure) in this genre. Feel complimentary to draw from The Scarlet Letter.

6. Identify a modern writer whom you think fits the Dark Romanticism genre (e.g., Stephen King, J.K. Rowling, Joyce Carol Oates). Provide proof to assistance your option, providing examples from their job-related.

7. Discuss Emily Dickinson"s seemingly inconsistent voices as a poet? Select at least two poems, identify elements of depression/hope, resilience/morbidity, and love/loss.

8. Why are readers drawn to stories around huguy fallibility? Discuss just how Dark Romantic authors appeabrought about their readers.

See more: The Source Of Energy That Illuminates A Lamp In Your Home Is

9. In Hawthorne"s The Birthmark: Georgiana tells her husband, "You cannot love what shocks you!" What is your opinion? Is it the imperfections we all possess that attracts us, or are these the attributes that repel us in disgust? Exsimple the message in this story.

10. Exsimple the interpretation of this quote from Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (chapter 87) in the context of Dark Romanticism: “for there is no folly of the beast of the earth which is not infinitely outdone by the madness of men.”

11. In Hawthorne"s The Minister"s Black Veil, what does Reverend Hooper"s veil represent and why does he wear it?


Here"s an excellent reresource on Dark Romanticism and its relation to Gothic Fiction

Dark Romantic Writers - Anti-Transcendentalism

Difference Between Romanticism and also Transcendentalism

Dark Romantic Teaching Project - Lesson planning ideas

Dark Romanticism exemplar: Moby-Prick - Study Guide

Biography and also Works by Herman Melville

Biography and Works by Nathaniel Hawthorne

Hawthorne"s The Minister"s Babsence Veil study guide

An Allegorical Investigation of "The Minister"s Babsence Veil"

Biography and also Works by Edgar Allan Poe

Elements of the Quick Story Using "The Babsence Cat"

Biography and also Works by Emily Dickinson

Amerideserve to Literature Lesson Plans: 19th Century, consisting of Poe, Bierce, Dickinson, Hawthorne

Puritanism As a Literary Force by H.L. Mencken

Modern Gothic vs. Classic Gothic Literature

Gothic Literature Study Guide


We should hear from you! Please share your leskid plans, concerns, or pitdrops to protect against while teaching this genre in pursuing our widespread interests of helping even more students enjoy reading classical literature! Contact us using Facebook or Twitter

Visit our Teacher Resources, sustaining proficiency instruction throughout all grade levels