Episode Two : Conpursuit – Transcript Printable Version: Downfill as a PDF <265k>. Downfill free Adobe Acrobat. Spanish coming into Inca city and complex Ataxalpa

Voiceover: One day in November, 1532, the New World and the Old World collided…

Spaniards and also Incas in battle, Spaniards relocating on through caught Incas

Jared on river in watercraft, in helicopter, examining old maps

Voiceover: 168 Spaniards assaulted the royal army of the Incas in the highlands of Peru. Before the day was out, they had actually massacred 7,000 civilization, and taken regulate of the Inca Empire. Not a single Spanish life was lost in the process. Why was the balance of power so uneven between Old World and also New? And why, in the centuries that complied with, were Europeans the ones who conquered so much of the globe? These are questions that fascinate Professor Jared Diamond. He is on a quest to understand the roots of power, searching for ideas in the many unmost likely places. He’s developed a extremely original concept that what sepaprices the winners from the losers is the land also itself – geography. It was the shape of the continents, their crops and animals that allowed some cultures to grow while others were left behind. But deserve to this means of seeing the human being shed light on the events of 1532? How can geography define the occupation of the people by firearms, germs and also steel? Titles: Episode 2: Consearch

Conquistadors traveling, led by Pizarro, on mountainside

Voiceover: For 2 years, a band of Spanish conquistadors has actually been traveling searching for gold and glory. They’re not skilled soldiers, however mercenaries and also adventurers, led by a reexhausted army captain, Francisco Pizarro. He’s currently made a fortune for himself in the colonies of Central America. Now he’s taking his males south, into unknown region. They are the first Europeans to have actually climbed the Andes, and ventured this far into the continent of South America.

Pizarro and also conquistadors finding local residents

Voiceover: As they take a trip, they discover evidence of a big indigenous people. They’ve got to the edge of the mighty Inca Realm. For Indians and also Spaniards achoose, any type of enrespond to is a clash of societies. These Indians have actually never seen white men prior to, and also have actually no principle of the risk they reexisting. They can’t imagine that within a few days, these strangers will turn their human being upside dvery own.

Planet from area, with highlighted locations

Voiceover: By the 1530s, the Inca Empire was massive. It stretched along the length of the Andes, from modern-day Ecuador to central Chile, a distance of 2,500 miles. But just 500 miles to the north started the colonies of Central America and the Caribbean – prized possessions of the Spanish empire. At the moment, the Spanish king controlled a third of mainland also Europe, but Spain itself had actually only newly become a merged state, having actually battled off 700 years of occupation by Islamic Moors. Pizarro’s residence, with Jared walking about it

Voiceover: It was still a rural culture. Most of the conquistadors came from villages and also little communities in the heart of the country; communities favor Trujillo, wbelow Pizarro grew up. He spent much of his childhood below, functioning as a swineherd in the fields adjacent. Today he’s remembered as a good warrior. His statue dominates the main square in Trujillo, and also his household home has been turned right into a museum. Jared Diamond has actually come right here to explore the human being of the conquistadors, and also understand the key of their success. Statue of Pizarro

Jared Diamond: This is Francisco Pizarro, a Spaniard that dominated the the majority of powerful state in the New World, the Inca Realm. Why did Pizarro and also his men overcome the Incas instead of the other method round? It seems prefer a basic question. The answer isn’t instantly evident. After all, Pizarro started out as a rather plain perchild, and also Trujillo right here is a fairly simple town. So what is it that provided Pizarro and his guys this substantial power?

Pizarro and conquistadors traveling

Jared Diamond: Why am I so interested in Pizarro’s conquistadors? Due to the fact that their story is such a grimly successful instance of European occupation. And for 30 years I’ve been exploring patterns of occupation. Voiceover: Jared Diamond is a professor at UCLA in Los Angeles. But most of his fieldwork has actually been done in Papua New Guinea. His time tbelow influenced him to check out the roots of inehigh quality in the contemporary civilization. To understand why some civilization have been able to conquer and conquer others. Looking earlier countless years, he says that farming provided some cultures an massive head start, and those who were lucky sufficient to have actually the most abundant crops and pets became the most abundant farmers. Agrisociety initially occurred in a component of the Center East well-known as the Fertile Crescent. In time, crops and animals from the Fertile Crescent spcheck out into North Africa and Europe, wbelow they prompted an explosion of world. By the 1sixth Century, European farms were dominated by livestock pets that had actually come from the Fertile Crescent. None were indigenous to Europe. They provided even more than simply meat. They were a resource of milk and also wool, leather and also manure. And crucially, they provided muscle power. Mules pulling ploughs, Incas cultivating land also as llamas look on, Conquistadors riding onto Inca land also

Voiceover: Harnessed to a till, a steed or an ox could transdevelop the efficiency of farmland. European farmers were able to prosper even more food to feed even more human being, who could then develop bigger and also more facility societies. In the New World, there were no steeds or cattle for farming. All the work had actually to be done by hand. The only huge residential animal was the llama, however these docile creatures have never been harnessed to a plough. The Incas were incredibly expert at thriving potatoes and corn, however because of their location, they might never be as productive as European farmers. Horses provided Europeans an additional enormous benefit – they might be ridden. To the Incas, the sight of Pizarro’s conquistadors passing through their land is extrasimple. They’ve never viewed human being brought by their pets prior to. Some think they are gods, these strange-looking men, component huguy, part beast. The steeds that appeared so exotic to the Incas had currently been provided in Spain for 4,000 years. In an era prior to motorized carry, they permitted people to be mobile, and manage their land. Jared watching Javier riding

Voiceover: When Javier Martin is not herding cattle, he offers screens of typical horsemanship. Javier Martin: This style of riding is known as jimeta. The focus is on manage and also maneuvercapability, using bent knees to grip the sides of the equine, and also only one hand on the reins. Very various from the more formal style of medieval knights. By the 1sixth century, the jimeta way of riding had actually become the leading style of the Spanish mounties. This is exactly how the conquistadors would have ridden their equines. Jared Diamond: It’s an exceptional screen of a huge animal being controlled by a perkid, exact manage, preventing and founding and also turning. Javier told me that he has actually been riding since he was five years old, and as soon as I watched this, I have a better expertise where the conquistadors were coming from. They were masters of these methods, and also they learned these methods for working via bulls, yet the approaches were also excellent in a army context also, and also I have the right to see that this manage would let you ride dvery own world in the open up. People who had actually never before checked out equines before would have actually been absolutely terrified watching this. It would be strange and also frightening, and also that’s even prior to among these animals is rushing in the direction of you, riding you down, around to lance you and kill you. Inca messenger running to give news to Ataxalpa

Voiceover: News of the godchoose strangers on their four-legged animals is taken by royal messenger to the emperor of the Incas, who’s camped in the valley of Cajamarca in northern Peru, guarded by an army of 80,000 guys.

Ataxalpa being beautified

Voiceover: Ataxalpa is revered as a living god, a child of the sunlight itself. He’s in Cajamarca on a religious retreat, providing thanks for a series of recent military triumphs. Messenger offering Ataxalpa the news

Voiceover: When he hears around the progression of the Spaniards, he chooses not to have them eliminated. Instead, he sends out earlier a message. He invites them to join him in Cajamarca, as conveniently as possible. Messenger running to provide reply

Efrain Trelles, Historian: Ataxalpa wanted the Spaniards to concerned Cajamarca and also enter into a trap, and to be certain that they would certainly perform so; he played choose a mental game with them, sending presents, asking them to come. Ataxalpa knew that the Spaniards were not gods. The intelligence reports soptimal of people wearing wool on their encounters, like a lamb or choose an alpaca, they’re just like an pet. Then they went from one area to the other wearing on top of their heads a little pot that has actually never before been used for cooking. You must be crazy to walk through a pot, but you need to be beyond salvation if you arrive to a camp and also you don’t use that pot to prepare. Ataxalpa had an idea that these were sub-humans. What could a few horsemen and also a hundred or so Spaniards carry out to the powerful Inca? Virtually nopoint.

Art illustrating Spanish in fight

Voiceover: But Ataxalpa’s spies don’t realize that the Spanish are armed through some of the best tools in the human being. At the moment of the conquistadors, Spain had the greatest army in Europe, orchestrated from the imperial capital, Tolecarry out. For even more than 700 years the Spaniards had gone to battle, fighting against the Moors and also other European militaries. Tbelow was an arms race in Europe. To make it through, the Spaniards essential to save up through the latest in weapons modern technology. Man and also Jared firing and loading guns

Voiceover: By the 1530s, the Jacobus was a crucial part of the Spanish arsenal. Gunpowder had actually originally come from China, however its usage as a weapon was pioneered by the Arabs. In European hands, guns ended up being lighter and more portable, and also were used for the initially time by foot soldiers on the battlefield. The Jacobus was still a crude weapon, however would certainly go on to change the confront of warfare. Jared Diamond: To us moderns, this gun doesn’t seem beneficial for anything, it’s like a joke. Its aim is damaging, it takes a lengthy time to repack, and also while the shooter’s reloading it a swordsguy would certainly come in and also kill him, yet the Incas hadn’t even obtained this much, and also this gun, with its sound and through the smell and also via the smoke and also via eexceptionally now and then a perboy that it maneras to kill, would certainly have actually been terrifying to someone that had never before checked out this before. This would certainly have actually been shock and awe, 1532 style. Sword smith at occupational as Jared watches

Voiceover: For all its bluster, the innovation of gunpowder was still in its infancy. The actual power of the conquistadors lay in other places, through the production of steel. Toleexecute had some of the best sword smiths in the civilization. But why were civilization below able to craft deadly steel weapons, while the Incas were still making easy bronze tools?

Man dealing with sword

Jared Diamond: Tright here was nopoint innately brilliant about Europeans themselves that enabled them to be the ones to make high quality swords. Just as through firearms, swords were the result of a long procedure of trial and error that began external Europe. People started functioning with metal in the Fertile Crescent 7,000 years ago, and also because Europe is geographically close to the abundant crescent, Europeans inherited this steel technology. But they took this modern technology on to a new level. European soldiers demanded stronger, longer, sharper swords. Jared Diamond: This is what a Toleperform sword looks prefer when it’s finimelted. This certain one is modeled on the sword that Pizarro lugged. It’s a fearsome weapon. It’s offered for stabbing and it’s likewise provided for slashing, and also I have the right to quickly understand just how the perchild wielding the sword can kill dozens of human being within a brief time. Mike Loads, Historical Weapons Expert: Swords favor this, rapiers, stood for a high allude in a very advanced metalworking technology. You think about what the features are that are necessary in a sword. First of all, it has to be hard sufficient, the metal has to be tough sufficient to take a sharp edge, and that calls for steel that is iron infoffered through carbon, and the more carbon you put into the iron, then the harder the steel is. But if you make it too hard, then it’s brittle, and also that’s no good because as you hit somebody, your sword would break, and so you additionally need your sword to have actually a certain plicapacity, an capacity to bfinish and also spring ago right into shape. And it’s obtained by heating it to specific temperatures, plunging it into cold water, immense amount of testing, it took centuries to get to the level of sophistication wright here you could gain somepoint so lengthy and elegant and fine, and deadly as the rapier.


Voiceover: The rapier, with its extra lengthy blade, was emerged as a dueling weapon, yet ended up being so fashionable in Renaissance Europe; it was the sword of option for any type of aspiring gentlemale. Mike Loades: Words rapier derives from the Spanish term “espara ropera”, and also that means dress sword. And for the first time in Spain, we begin to view human being wearing the sword via their day-to-day garments, their civilian dress, going about their everyday organization. They didn’t do that in the Center Ages. This is something brand-new in the 16th century, and also it’s saying I have actually arrived, I am a gentleguy, I am upwardly mobile, and also I case genealogy from the knights of the Middle Ages. It was very much a symbol of the conquistadors’ aspiring greed. The point that drove them with all their hardships, the thing that made them go to the Americas, was their lust for gold, their lust for self-development, and also the rapier absolutely symbolized that overbearing avarice. Conquistadors traveling, looking across valley to huge town and also massed troops

Voiceover: On November 1fifth 1532, Pizarro’s band of adventurers gone into the valley of Cajamarca. They’ve been told that Ataxalpa is waiting for them here. But they’re not prepared for the sight that greets them. In the hills beyond the town of Cajamarca is the imperial Inca army – 80,000 guys in complete battle order. The conquistadors’ very own journals bear witness to their initially impressions. Diary Reading: Their camp looked like a very beautiful city. We’d viewed nopoint like it in the Indies till then, and also it scared us, bereason we were so few and so deep in this land also. Spanish entering Inca camp and also being taken to Ataxalpa

Voiceover: Pizzaro sends a party of his best horsemen right into the heart of the Inca camp. They are led by Captain De Soto. They are gambling that Ataxalpa will certainly permit them to pass with the camp unharmed, and agree to accomplish them. Efrain Trelles: Soto’s visit had a really vital psychological purpose; to intimidate the Inca in front of his world. Challenging him via the equine. Ataxalpa at first didn’t react to Soto’s presence, as if nobody had gotten in the room. Once the, the equine comes eye to eye with the Inca, the Inca is still calm, reflecting that the equine has no influence on him, calling Soto’s bluff. The captain advanced so close that the horse’s nostrils disturbed the fringe of the Inca’s forehead. But the Inca never before moved. And then, after a brief silence comes Ataxalpa’s explosion. He was telling them, the time has come for you to pay. I understand this as the moment has come for you to pay with your stays. Soto I understand also was nervous sufficient to come ago through fear to the, the camp, and as we recognize, the Spaniards invested the night before in extreme fear. Spaniards’ camp at night

Voiceover: The conquistadors had made their camp in the tvery own of Cajamarca. Many type of of them are now encouraged they are encountering oblivion. 168 soldiers, 1,000 miles from any type of other Spaniard, dealing with an army of 80,000 Incas. Diary Reading: Couple of of us slept that night. We maintained walking the square, from wright here we could see the campfires of the Indian army. It was a fearful sight, like a brilliantly star-studded night. Voiceover: Pizarro and also his most trusted officers conflict their options for exactly how to address Ataxalpa. Some advise caution, but Pizarro insists their ideal opportunity is to launch a surpclimb assault the next day. It’s a tactic that’s operated properly in the previous. Twelve years before Pizarro saw Peru, an additional famed conquistador, Hernan Cortez, had gone to Mexico and also encountered one more formidable civilization; the Aztecs. He dominated the nation by kidnapping the Aztec leader and exploiting the ensuing chaos. Cortez’s story was later on publiburned and became a bestseller, a handbook for any kind of would-be conquistador. It deserve to still be discovered in the great library of Salamanca College in Northern Spain. Jared Diamond: This wonderful library here have the right to be assumed of among various other points as a repository of dirty tricks, because in these books are the accounts of what generals had actually been doing to other generals for thousands of years in the past and across much of Eurasia, and right here from this library we have actually a famed account of the occupation of Mexico via all the details of what Cortez did to the Aztecs and also what worked. That was a version for Pizarro to give him ideas what exactly to try out on the Incas, whereas the Incas without writing, had only neighborhood knowledge transmitted by dental memory, and they were unsophisticated and naïve compared to the Spaniards bereason of creating. Voiceover: But if publications were so useful, why couldn’t the Incas check out or write? To develop a new mechanism of creating independently is an extremely facility procedure, and has occurred exceptionally hardly ever in human history. It was first completed by the Sumerian people of the Fertile Crescent at least 5,000 years back. They pioneered a fancy device of signs dubbed picture writing, probably as a method of recording farming transactions. Ever given that, virtually eextremely various other created language of Europe and Asia has replicated, adjusted or simply been inspired by the basics of picture writing. The spreview of creating was assisted enormously by the development of paper, ink and moveable type, innovations that all came from external Europe but were seized upon by Europeans in the Center Ages to develop the ultimate transmitter of expertise – the printing press. The composed word can currently spreview easily and accurately across Europe and also Asia. The modern world would certainly be impossible without the advancement of writing. Jared researching maps

Voiceover: But there’s another part of the human being where a new device of writing was designed separately. In Southern Mexico, at leastern 2,500 years earlier, native world arisen a way of working through icons that associated into the Mayan manuscript. But if the Maya had actually writing, why didn’t it spcheck out southern to the Andes and also help the Incas become literate? For Diamond, the answer lies in the form of the continents. Jared Diamond: Here were Europe and Asia forming the continent of Eurasia, a huge continent but it’s stretched out from east to west, and also narrows from north to southern. The Amerihave the right to continent is long from north to south, narrowhead from eastern to west – exceptionally narrow at Panama wright here it narrows dvery own to less than 100 miles. The two continents are of the exact same lengths, around 8,000 miles in maximum dimensions, but Eurasia is 8,000 miles from eastern to west, and also the Americas are 8,000 miles from north to southern, it’s as if these continents were rotated 90 levels of each various other. Voiceover: Diamond has currently shown that plants and pets might spread conveniently eastern and west throughout Eurasia. Because areas the exact same latitude immediately share the very same day size and also a similar climate and vegetation. But the Amerideserve to continents were the opposite of Eurasia. A journey from one end of the Americas to the various other is a journey from north to southern, a journey via various day lengths, various climate areas, and considerably different vegetation. These basic distinctions hindered the spreview of crops and pets as well as civilization, concepts and also technologies. The people of the Andes were chronically isolated, without accessibility to composing or virtually any kind of other innovation from somewhere else in the Americas. By contrast, Pizarro and his guys were geographically blessed. As Spaniards, they enjoyed the advantage of technologies and also principles that had actually spread easily across Eurasia.

Jared Diamond: The occasions of 1532 were clearly affected by deep causes, over which no individual Spaniard or Inca had any regulate. The shape of the continents, the distribution of plants and also pets, the spreview of Eurasian innovation, these were facts of location, and at nearly eincredibly turn of the drama, location was tilted in favor of the Europeans. Conquistadors preparing for fight, inter-reduced through Ataxalpa being all set for day’s events

Inca party en course to meeting

Voiceover: It’s the morning of November 16th, 1532. Ataxalpa has actually agreed to fulfill the Spaniards in the tvery own of Cajamarca, and also sends out his entourage ahead of him. But he renders a fateful decision; that his soldiers need to not bring weapons. Efrain Trelles: The Indians were musicians and also dancers. They were soldiers, but unarmed. Why would Ataxalpa unarm his very own soldiers? Why, bereason he remained in the festivity, he was celebrating. He wasn’t going to war. He was going for a celebration so that the totality human being might view how the alleged gods would run away in are afraid. The reality that some civilization believed that the Spaniards were gods would play better in the hands of Ataxalpa’s objective. If I understand they are not gods and I defeat the gods, then of course everybody will certainly be with me. But what if I defeat the gods through no show of pressure at all? Then I am beyond the gods. Party via Ataxalpa on litter

Voiceover: While Ataxalpa and also his guys enter Cajamarca, the Spaniards are waiting, covert from watch. Ataxalpa coming right into primary square via troops

Diary Reading: There were 5 or 6,000 men and behind them, the figure of Ataxalpa, seated in a very fine litter, lined via feathers and embelliburned via gold and also silver. Many type of of us pissed ourselves out of sheer terror. Efrain Trelles: The square is filed via Ataxalpa’s human being, yet there’s, there’s not one Spaniard at sight. Ataxalpa asks, ‘Wright here are these dogs?’ One of his ideal hands answers, ‘They have actually run amethod because they are afrassist of magnificent Inca’. Of course the whole crowd listened to this and thought that this was the instance. Ataxalpa receiving visit from Spanish priest

Subtitles: I come before you in the name of Christianity…

Pizarro sends out out his priest to challenge Ataxalpa. Subtitles: …to display you the route of reality

The conquistadors are obliged to attempt and also convert aboriginal human being before any type of resort to violence. Subtitles: What are you talking about hair face?

Subtitles: I am the Son of the Sun!

Subtitles: I deserve to govern my people

Subtitles: What right carry out you have to speak to me in this way?

Subtitles: My authority comes from The Lord

Subtitles: His Word is written in this book

Subtitles: This is your power?

Ataxalpa has never before seen a book before. He doesn’t know what to do via it. Subtitles: It’s worthless

Subtitles: I don’t hear the word you speak of

Subtitles: How dare you, Indian dog!

Subtitles: Come out, Spaniards!

Subtitles: Destroy these dogs that don’t respect points of God!

Spaniards open fire and also battle starts

Efrain Trelles: At that minute, through the crowd absolutely unready, the steeds come. Tbelow was enormous panic. Mike Loades: Just imagine the scene in Cajamarca. The Incas hadn’t checked out equines prior to, and these aren’t ordinary horses, these are Spanish equines, fierce, significant, fighting horses. They might obtain in among guys, they would trample men and they made the the majority of fantastic platcreate. From the horse, you might stab dvery own to the left, stab down to the right, you could cut, you can scythe, hacking all around you.

Voiceover: If just the Incas had actually recognized that what you had actually to perform versus mounties was stand firm, then they’d have actually been albest, they had premium numbers, but they didn’t know that. They fled, they damaged ranks, and then the horsemen can acquire in among them and they cut them down. Mike Loades: There was an Inca god referred to as Viracoxa, and also he was a white male, and he was the god of thunder, and they assumed these males via their aquabprovides were the extremely incarcountry of Viracoxa. Efrain Trelles: The Inca Ataxalpa was in his litter, held by his carriers. As soon as they were able to carry out it, the Spaniards went after the litter. And they started killing the carriers. One carrier would certainly autumn, and also another one would certainly replace him. Only at the extremely, incredibly, incredibly finish of the tragedy, the litter started to move bereason tbelow were no even more carriers left. As the litter falls, Pizarro himself captures Ataxalpa. His arrangement has operated to perfection. Ataxalpa is taken to a makeshift priboy in the imperial quarters at Cajamarca. Diary Reading: He thought we were going to kill him, but we told him, no. Christians only kill in the warmth of the fight. Voiceover: Outside, hundreds of Incas are dead. The rest of the army has actually retreated to the hills. Regardless of a substantial imbalance in number, Spanish steeds, swords and strategy have verified decisive. But the Spaniards possessed another weapon they didn’t also recognize they had – a weapon of mass devastation that had marched invisibly ahead of them. Spanish slave showing indications of illness

Voiceover: Today, the war against transmittable disease is waged at organic research study centers favor Porton Down in Southern England. They produce vaccines below versus the world’s most dangerous virprovides. In the 16th century tright here were no vaccines, and tright here was no protection from the rampant spcheck out of infectious illness. Twelve years before Pizarro landed on Cajamarca, a Spanish ship sairesulted in Mexico. On board, among the servants was experiencing from the initially indicators of a fever before. He was the first person to bring a deadly condition to the Amerideserve to mainland also. The condition was smallpox. Within weeks, the smallpox virus would certainly spcheck out from a solitary resource to infect hundreds of native Americans. Dr Tim Brooks, Health Protection Agency, Porton Down: Smallpox gets into the body once you breathe in the pshort articles, and they connect themselves to the ago of your throat and the inside of your lungs. About two to three days right into the disease, then the classical rash appears, and also in its worst forms, this takes over the whole of the body through initially pimples and then substantial blisters until the whole of the skin, founding through the hands and the challenge and then spanalysis dvery own to cover the remainder of the body, is taken over by the smallpox blisters. From that time on, the patient is extremely transmittable. Due to the fact that each of those blisters is packed complete of smallpox pwrite-ups, then if you burst a blister, liquid will certainly come out and large numbers of viruses will be spilt onto whatever before it touches. Ten to twelve days later, his friends would certainly be taken ill, and also then ten to twelve days after that, their friends. That sort of rate suggests the illness spreads exponentially. Its rate of rise gets bigger and bigger and also bigger the more human being are infected, until inevitably it will cause remarkable devaterminal in the population. Depiction of smallpox victims, Smallpox victim being nursed

Jared in field looking at cows and lamb, Livestock in fields

Voiceover: The first smallpox epidemic of the New World swept with Central America and reached the Inca Realm. Wherever before it went, the virus decimated native populaces, making them much easier prey for Spanish occupation. But why were the germs so one-sided? Why did the Spaniards pass their conditions onto the Incas, and also not the various other method around? Jared Diamond: This is Pizarro’s secret weapon; pigs and also cows, sheep and goats, domestic animals. Remember that Pizarro was a swineherd. He flourished up in huts favor this, in intimate call through domestic pets, breathing in their germs, drinking the germs in their milk, and also it was from the germs of domestic pets that the killer illness of human beings advanced, for instance our ‘flu developed from an illness of pigs transmitted through chickens and ducks. We got measles from cattle; we acquired smallpox from domestic animals, so that these worst killers of human human being were a tradition of 10,000 years of call through our beloved domestic animals. Voiceover: During the Middle Ages, contagious illness brushed up through Europe and asserted numerous lives. But paradoxically, repeated epidemics made Europeans even more long lasting. In each outbreak, tright here were always some people who were genetically much better able to fight off the virus. These human being were even more likely to survive and also have actually kids. In the procedure, they’d pass on their genetic resistance. Over centuries, whole populations gained some level of protection against the spreview of conditions prefer smallpox – a protection the Incas never had actually. Tim Brooks: Once smallpox was taken to the New World, nobody in the New World had ever watched an illness favor this before, so the variety of people who were susceptible was much higher. Tbelow was no herbal immunity, and so therefore the number of people who might both contract the illness and also then spcheck out it, and the variety of people to obtain it when it had actually spcheck out, was a lot higher.

Voiceover: More world would certainly die, and more human being would certainly be susceptible to capture it in the first area. It would certainly spreview quickly throughout the population, and also the fatality toll would be substantial. Jared Diamond: Why hadn’t Native Americans encountered smallpox before? And why didn’t they have actually any type of deadly diseases of their own to pass on to the Spaniards? It’s ssuggest bereason they didn’t have actually the very same history of contact through farm animals. The Incas had llamas, yet llamas aren’t favor European cows and also sheep. They’re not milked, they’re not preserved in large herds, and also they don’t live in barns and huts alongside human beings. Tbelow was no significant exreadjust of germs between llamas and human being. Voiceover: The essential to Diamond’s debate is the distribution of farm pets roughly the people. Aside from the llama, all the big farm animals were indigenous to Eurasia and North Africa. None was ever before tamed in The United States and Canada, Sub-Saharan Africa, or Australia. As a result, the worst epidemic conditions were likewise indigenous to Eurasia and North Africa, and also were then spreview around the people via deadly effect. There’s been a long dispute around the variety of indigenous civilization who died in the Spanish conquest of the New World. Some scholars think tbelow might have actually been a population of 20 million Native Americans, and also the vast majority, perhaps 95%, were eliminated by Old World diseases. A continent virtually emptied of its people. Ataxalpa playing chess

Voiceover: After the initial shock of his capture, Ataxalpa ended up being a cooperative prisoner. He learned to stop Spanish, and also play chess with his captors. The Spaniards realized he was even more beneficial to them alive than dead. He was permitted to re-develop his court in prikid, as lengthy as he ordered his civilization to accept Spanish preeminence. He also ordered them to melt down a substantial amount of treasure. Pizarro had actually promised Ataxalpa his freedom in rerevolve for the gold. It showed to be an empty promise. Having handed over 20 tons of gold and also silver, Ataxalpa was no much longer valuable to his captors. He was garrotted to death, in the same square where so many type of of his followers had been slaughtered eight months earlier. With Ataxalpa dead, the conquistadors went on to colonize the rest of Peru. Relying on the power of their weapons, germs and steel. Voiceover: Gold from the Spanish swarms was brought earlier to Seville in Southern Spain. There’s little bit task in the Guadocreata River today, yet in the 1sixth century, this was among the a lot of necessary, busiest ports in the human being. A steady circulation of ships delivering treasure from the Americas helped Spain end up being among the wealthiest nations on earth. The conquistadors had changed forever before the connection between Old World and New. Jared Diamond:: I involved Spain to answer a question – why did Pizarro and his men dominate the Incas rather of the other means around? There’s a totality mythology that that occupation and the European growth in general resulted from Europeans themselves being especially brave or bold or inventive or smart, but the answers rotate out to have nopoint to do with any kind of individual qualities of Europeans. Yeah, Pizarro and his men were brave, but tbelow were plenty of brave Incas. Instead, Europeans were accidental conquerors. By virtue of their geographical area and background, they were the first world to gain firearms, germs and also steel.

Steam train, Slaves in chains, Guns being loaded and fired on people equipped through spears

Voiceover: By the finish of the 19th century, European powers had ventured dvery own the Americas and colonized Africa, Australia and also a lot of Asia. The procedure that began at Cajamarca had actually got to its logical conclusion. European guns, germs and steel were reshaping the people.

Wbelow to next? Find out more around Episode Three. Read the complete transcript of Episode Three.
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