Ice is strange, in that the solid form is less dense than the liquid water it freezes from. This causes Ice to float on peak of the water.

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How would certainly our planet earth be different if something adjusted this building of Ice so that it became substantially denser than water. Dense enough to sink to the bottom.

Would the poles freeze up completely?

How would the climate and life be affected?


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If ice did not float, Snowball Planet would certainly have had actually a bigger impact on life ( as soon as after excellent oxygecountry it was not enough CO2 in the atmosphere to save Earth warmth enough and also, according to some theories, the whole surchallenge of Earth was covered by ice.) But it is fairly possible that life could survive anymeans about underwater volcanoes and in areas of enhanced salinity (saltier water freezes at reduced temperature).

Maybe it was not 100% ice spanned, maybe there were gaps (slushround earth) and after excellent extinction some lifeforms would certainly have actually endured, but you are taking opportunities with lowering the opportunity of evolving more complex life forms. We know that Tardigrade deserve to make it through freezing and the vacuum of room, more complicated life is sepaprice question.

Even with today"s climate, if ice sunk to the ocean bottom (wbelow it is cooler, and summer warmth is harder to get). Such ice would not melt for millennia, developing perma-ice (equivalent to permafrost). Life would certainly be feasible only in shenable layer of water between perma-ice and also surconfront. This layer would certainly be incredibly cold, cooled from the bottom by perma-ice.

As an outcome, oil fields would not develop, or if formed, they would certainly be between layers of perma-ice. Same via various other geological creates developed from sediments of sea bottoms, like chalk, limerock, sandrock. These will certainly be mixed with perma-ice. Possibly limestome would never develop, because push to developed it would warmth and melt ice layers.

Such ice frozen under press transdevelops to hexagonal columns. Very pretty. Columns deserve to be separated intact - ice shatters on influence into hexagonal columns.

After compressed in bigger depth, or uplifted by geological procedures over sea level, ice would certainly melt and also layer over would certainly collapse. Would produce very different geology on such earth.

Interelaxing effects on such planet:

No tsunami after earthquake, because liquid ocean is shenable.More volcanoes, because more water (perma-ice) would certainly be subducted in subduction areas in continental drift.Frequent smaller tsunami, as soon as mixed layers of ice and sediment crack.Bigger changes in weather in between summer and winter, bereason temperature stabilizing effect of seas would be substantially diminished (much less volume of water).Interesting effects through near-ocean volcanoes like Hawaii and Iceland also. Or underwater volcanoes, melting perma-ice and messing up geologic layers, developing more tsunamis.Warm sea curleas would certainly melt underwater canyons in perma-ice. Would have actually interesting effects on oceans, especially as continental drift would certainly move such canyons.such canyons in perma-ice would certainly have surprising methods to emphasis tsunami. After reasoning around it, tsunamis on such planet would be regular and also even more localized, even more concentrated, because power of tsunami would certainly dissipate much less (wave would travel down the canyon with little bit decrease in destructive power or dispersion).These canyons would have actually similar effect prefer bends in river delta: instead of sediments, layers of ice higher than the "banks" of "canyons" would be deposited by tsunamis, and quickly frozen, creating "walls" between polders wbelow water in summer would be fresh melt (bit salt), yet darker bottom bereason of sediments. Those polders would be freshwater lakes on perma-ice (not on dry land).Liquid components of seas would certainly by a lot saltier bereason salt "freezes out" from ice.It is fairly possible that in some areas closer to poles, salt would centralize in few areas, producing extremely salty lakes (which would certainly not freeze also in winter, warming them up bereason of buildup of glaciers in Arctic (2 miles thick over sea level favor Antarctic), sea level in tropical locations would be much lower (some 100-300 meter less) bereason all that water would certainly be solid in thick polar glaciers. Glaciers would extfinish a lot farther from poles, and climate would be colder (even more sun energy would certainly be reflected back to space).ice reflects even more sunlight energy than water, positive feedback). Effect in Arctic Ocean would be perma-ice all the way to the surchallenge, even way above sea level in tropics, with occasional very salty lakes high in the perma-ice/glacier mountains. So perma-ice would be like solid land, sustaining glaciers and also salt lakes (with perhaps addition of layers of dust lugged by winds).In snowround phase of Earth, seas would certainly freeze totally (bottom to height in winter) except near underwater volcanoes. As a result: Life would adapt to to endure occasional freezing, and have the ability to proceed after thawing. Re
David Richerby effectively notes, if ice dropped to bottom, if cold lasts long sufficient, body of water would freeze bottom to peak. Then, even throughout summer it can not melt all the method to the bottom (ice being safeguarded by cold water on optimal of it), and also ice would certainly accumulate until frozen solid bottom to optimal. Not excellent for facility life.Effect on plant life on continents would be minimal.

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Seasons would certainly be more pronounced, but plants can take care of that. So coal need to be possible - and also likewise industrial revolution.Such adaptation to endure many type of freeze/thaw cycles would be rise for slower-than-light travel. So if progressed life and also space-faring people might develop on such earth, they would have actually excellent benefit in area travel.