hard,fibrous tconcern that creates the outermost extending of bone
compact bonedense tough and exceptionally solid bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones. aka cortical bone
spongy bonelighter and not as solid as compact bone. aka cancellous bone
medullary cavitycentral cavity located in the shaft of long bones wbelow it surrounded by compact bones. red & YELLOW BONE MARROW ARE STORED
endosteumtconcern that lines the medullary cavity
red bone marrowlocated within the spongy bone,manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin,white blood cells and thrombocytes
hemopoieticpertaining to the development of blood cells
yellow bone marrowattributes as fat storage
cartilagesmooth rubbery blue-white connective tconcern that acts as a shock absorber in between ones.

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also comprise functional components of the skeleton
articular cartilagecovers the surconfront of the bones wbelow they come together to create joints
meniscuscurved fibrous cartilage discovered in some joints such as the knee
diaphysisshaft of a long bone
epiphyseswider ends of the lengthy bones
foramenopening in the bone via which blood vessels, nerves, and also ligaments pass
processnormal estimate on the surchallenge of a bone that many commonly serves as an attachment for a muscle/tendon
jointsaka articulations, location of union between 2 or even more bones
fibrous jointsconsisting of inversatile layers of thick connective tissue
fontanellesaka soft spot are generally present in the skull of a newborn
cartilaginous jointspermit only slight movement & consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage
pubic symphysisallows some activity to facilitate childbirth
synovial jointdeveloped wbelow 2 bones articulate to permit a selection of motions
sphere & socket jointssuch as hips, enable a wide array of activity in many type of directions
hinge jointsknees & elbows are synovial joints that enable activity in only 1 direction
synovial capsuleouterthe majority of layer of solid fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint
synovial membranelines the capsule & secretes synovial fluid
synvoial fluidflows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make smooth movement of the joint possible
ligamentsbands of fibrous tissue that creates joints by connecting one bone to one more bone or by joining a bone to cartilage
bursafibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease motion in areas that are subject to friction
axial skeletonprotects the organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems
appendicular skeletonrenders body activity possible
craniumpercentage of the skull that encloses & protects the brain
suturesjagged fibrous joints that join the cranial bones together
frontal boneanterior percent of the cranium that creates the forehead
parietal bones2 of the largest bones of the skull. they form the majority of of the roof & upper sides of the cranium
occipital bonecreates the back component of the skull & the base of the cranium
external auditory meatusthe opening of the outside auditory canal of the external ear
sphenoid boneirconsistent, wedge shaped bone at the base of the skull
ethmoid bonelight spongy bone situated at the roof and sides of the nose
auditory ossicles3 tiny bones located in each middle ear
nasal bonesupper component of the bridge of the nose
zygomatic bonesaka cheekbones
maxillary bonesdevelop the majority of of the upper jaw
palatine bonesdevelop the anterior(front) part of the hard palate of the mouth & floor of the nose
lacrimal bonescomprise part of the orbit(socket of the eye) at the inner angle
inferior conchaethin scroll-choose bones that develop component of the interior of the nose
vomer bonedevelops the base of the nasal septum
mandibleaka jawbone, is the only movable bone in the skull
thoracic cavityaka rib cage, bony framework that protects the heart & lungs
ribsaka costals connect posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
sternumaka breastern bone level dagger shaped bone situated in the middle of the chest
manubriumbony structure that develops the upper percent of the sternum
body of the sternumbony structure that creates the middle portion of the sternum
xiphoid processframework made of cartilage that develops the reduced percentage of the sternum
pectoral girdlethe shoulders which support the arms & hands
clavicleaka collar bone, is a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula
scapulaaka shoulder blade
acromionexpansion of the scapula that forms the high allude of the shoulder
humerusbone of the top arm
radiussmaller sized shorter bone in the forearm,runs up the thumb side of the forearm
ulnalarger,much longer bone of the forearm
olecranon processaka funny bone, is a big projection on the top end of the ulna
carpalsbones that develop the wrist
metacarpals5 bones that form the palm of the hand
phalangesare the 14 bones of the fingers * bones of the toes as well
spinal columnaka vertebral column protects the spinal cord & supports the head and also body
vertebrae26 in the spinal column
laminaposterior percentage of the vertebrae
intervertebral disksmade of cartilage,sepaprice & cushion the vertebrae from each other
cervical vertebraefirst collection of 7 vertebrae and also they develop the neck
thoracic vertebraewell-known as T1 & T12, are the second set of 12 vertebrae
lumbar vertebraerecognized as L1-L5, make up the 3rd set of 5 vertebrae & together create the inward curve of the lower spine
sacrumslightly curved triangular shaped bone close to the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back
coccyxaka tailbone develops the end of the spine & is actually made of 4 little vertebrae that are foffered together
pelvic girdleprotectsinner organs and also supports the reduced extremities
iliumwide blade shaped bone that develops the back & sides of the pubic bone
sacroiliacthe slightly movable articulation in between the sacrum & posterior percent of the ilium
ischiumcreates the lower posterior percent of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body once sitting
pubisforms the anterior percent ofthe pubic bone, situated simply below the urinary bladder
pubic symphysiscartilaginous joint that unites the left & best pubic bones
acetabulumaka hip sockets, huge circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates w/ the head of the femur to create the hip joint
femursbiggest bones in the body
patellaaka knee cap, bonyanterior percent of the knee
poplitealposterior space behind the knee where the ligaments,vessels, and also muscles pertained to this joint are located
cruciate ligamentsmake feasible the movement of the knee
tibiaaka shin bone is the bigger anterior weight bearing bone in the reduced leg
fibulathe smaller of the 2 bones in the lower leg
anklesthe joints that affix the reduced leg & foot, make the vital motions possible
tarsalthe 7 short bones of the ankle equivalent to the bones of the wrist,
malleolusrounded bony forecast on the tibia & fibula on the sides of each ankle joint
talusthe ankle bone that articulates w/ the tibia & fibula
calcaneusaka heel bone, lbiggest of the tarsal bones
metatarsals5 bones that create the component of the foot where the toes are attached
phalangesbones of the toe, also the fingers
chiropractorholds a dr of chiropractic level & specializes in the manipulative therapy of disorders orginating from misalignment of the spine
orthopedic surgeonmedical professional that specializes in diagnosing & dealing with illness & disorders involving bones, joints and muscles
osteopathholds a dr of osteopathy degree & uses standard forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in dealing with health and wellness problems by spinal manipulation
podiatristdr of podiatry degree & specializes in diagnosing & dealing with disorders of the foot
rheumatologistdoctor who specializes in diagnosis & therapy of arthritis and also disorders such as osteoporosis
ankylosisloss or lack of mobility in a joint because of illness, injury, or a surgical procedure
arthrosclerosisstiffness of the joints
bursitisinflammation of a bursa
chondromalaciaabnormal softening of cartilage
chondromaslow flourishing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells
costochondritisinflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
hallux valgusaka bunion, an abnormal enlargemetn of the joint at the base of the great toe
hemarthrosisblood within a joint
polymyalgia rheumaticageriatric inflammatory disorder of the muscles & joints identified by pain and also stiffness in the neck, shoulders, upper arms, hips and also thighs
synovitisinflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling & pain of the influenced joint
dislocationfull displacement of a bone from its joint
subluxationpartial displacement of a bone from its joint
arthritisinflammatory condition of one or more joint
osteoarthritisa lot of commonly connected w/ aging
osteophytesbone spurs
spondylosisaka spinal osteoarthritis, degenerative disorder have the right to reason the loss of normal spinal framework & function
gouty arthritisaka gout, form of arthritis characterized by deposits of uricacid in the joints
rheumatoid arthritisaka RA, chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints & some organs of other body units are attacked
ankyshedding spondylitisdevelop of rheumatoid arthritis that generally causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
juvenile rheumatoid arthritisautoimmune disorder that affects kids ages 16 yrs or less
herniated diskaka slipped/ruptured disk breaking acomponent of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
lumbagopain in the lumbar region
spondylolisthesisis the forward slipping motion of the body of one of the reduced lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it
spina bifidacongenital defect that occurs in the time of early pregnancy once the spinal canal falls short to cshed entirely about the spinal cord to safeguard it
kyphosisan abnormal boost in the outside curvature of the thoracic spine as perceived from the side
lordosisabnormal rise in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine
scoliosislateral curvature of the spine
craniostenosismaldevelopment of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures
fibrous dysplasiabone disorder of unwell-known cause that destroys normal bone framework & reareas it through fibrous tissue
ostealgiapain in the bone
osteitisinflammation of the bone
osteomalaciaaka adult rickets, abnormal softening of bones in adults
osteomyelitisinflammation of the bone marrowhead & nearby bone
osteonecrosisdeath of bone tissue because of inadequate blood supply
paget's diseasebone condition of unknown cause
periostitisinflammation of the periosteum
ricketsdeficiency illness arising in kids,results from a vit D deficiency
brief statureproblem resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an proper length compared to the size of the head & trunk
talipesaka clubfoot describes any congenital deformity of the foot including the talus(ankle bones)
primary bone cancerfairly rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone
second bone cancerdescribes tumors that have actually metastasized to bones from other organs
myelomacancer that occurs in blood making cells found in red bone marrow
osteochondromaa benign bony forecast extended with cartilage
osteoporosisnoted loss of bone density & an increase in bone porosity that if commonly linked through aging
osteopeniathinner then average bone density
compression fractureoccurs as soon as the bone is pressed together on itself
colles fractureaka fractured wrist
osteoporotic hip fractureaka damaged hip usually led to by weakening of the bones because of osteoporosis
fracturea damaged bone
closed fracturedamaged bone but tbelow is no open wound
open up fracturedamaged bone and also an open skin wound
comminuted fracturebone is splintered or crushed
greenstick fracturewbelow the bone is bent & just partially broken, occurs primarily in children
pathologic fractureoccurs as soon as a weakened bone breaks under normal strain
spiral fracturefracture wright here the bone has been twisted apart
stress fracturewhich is an overuse injury is a tiny crack in a bone that frequently establishes from chronic excessive impact
transverse fractureoccurs right throughout the bone
fat embolusdevelop when a lengthy bone is fractured & fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood
crepitationgrating sound heard once the ends of a damaged bone move together
callusdevelops as a bulging deposit about the area of the break
radiographaka x ray, provided to visualize bone fractures & various other abnormalities
arthroscopyvisual examination of the inner framework of a joint
bone marrowhead biopsydiagnostic test that may be essential after abnormal kinds or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test
magnetic resonance imagingsupplied to image soft tworry frameworks such as the inner of facility joints
bone thickness testingsupplied to determine losses or alters in bone density
ultrasonic bone density testingscreening test for osteoporosis or various other problems that reason a loss of bone mass
dual x ray absorptiometrylow exposure radiographic measurement of the spine & hips to measure bone density
bone marrowhead transplantoffered to treat particular forms of cancer
allogenic bone marrow transplantsupplies healthy bones marrow cells from a compatible donor
autologous bone marrowhead transplantpatient receives his own bone marrowhead cells which have been harvested, cleansed,treated, and also stored
orthoticmechanical appliance such as a leg brace that is specially designed to manage, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
prosthesissubstitute for a diseased or missing body part
arthrodesissurgical fusion of 2 bones to stiffen a joint
artholysissurgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
arthroscopic surgeryminimally invasive procedure for the therapy of the internal of a joint
chondroplastysurgical repair of damaged cartilage
synovectomysurgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
viscosupplementationsinjections provided to include preparation of hyaluronic acid & connected compounds to a joint, easing friction
arthroplastysurgical repair of a damaged joint
percutaneous diskectomyperdeveloped to treat a herniated intervertebral disk
percutaneous vertebroplastypercreated to treat osteoporosis-connected compression fractures
laminectomysurgical removal of a lamina or posterior percent of a vertebra
spinal fusionstrategy to immobilize component of the spine by joining together two or even more vertebraecraniectomy
craniectomysurgical removal of a part of the skull
craniotomysurgical incision or opening right into the skull
cranioplastysurgical repair of the skull
osteoclasissurgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
ostectomysurgical removal of a bone
osteoplastysurgical repair of a bone or bones
osteorrhaphysurgical suturing or wiring together of bones
osteotomysurgical cutting of a bone
periosteotomyan incision via the periosteum to the bone
closed reductionattempted realignment of a bone connected in a fracture or joint dislocation
immobilizationact of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a resolved position with strapping or a cast
tractiona pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to rerotate the bone or joint to normal alignment
exterior fixationfracture treatment wbelow pins are placed via the soft tworry & bone so that an exterior appliance can be provided to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place
interior fixationplate or pins are are put directly right into the bone to organize the broken pieces together