Data are the principal resources of an organization.Documents stored in computer system devices form a hierarchy extfinishing from a solitary little to adatabase, the major record-maintaining entity of a firm. Each higher rung of this pecking order isorganized from the components below it.

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Data are logically arranged into:

1. Bits (characters)

2. Fields

3. Records

4. Files

5. Databases

Bit (Character) - a little is the smallest unit ofinformation representation (worth of a little may be a 0 or 1). Eight bits make a byte which canreexisting a character or a special symbol in a character code.

Field - a field is composed of a grouping ofcharacters. A data area represents an attribute (a characteristic or quality) of someentity (object, perboy, area, or event).

Record - a document represents a collection ofcharacteristics that explain a real-world entity. A document is composed of areas, through each fielddescribing an attribute of the entity.

File - a team of connected records. Files aretypically classified by the application for which they are mostly supplied (employeefile). A major key in a file is the field (or fields) whose valueidentifies a document among others in a data record.

Database - is an incorporated repertoire oflogically connected records or records. A database consolidays documents previously stored inseparate files right into a common pool of information documents that gives data for manyapplications. The information is managed by devices software application referred to as database management systems(DBMS). The data stored in a database is independent of the application programs utilizing itand also of the kinds of additional storage gadgets on which it is stored.

6.2 File Environment and also its Limitations

There are 3 primary techniques of organizing records,of which just two provide the straight accessibility essential in on-line devices.

File Organization

Documents files are arranged so regarding facilitate access torecords and also to ensure their efficient storage. A tradeoff between these 2 requirementsmainly exists: if fast accessibility is forced, more storage is compelled to make itfeasible.

Access to a record for reading it is theessential operation on information. There are two forms of access:

1. Sequential access - is percreated once documents are accessed in the order they are stored. Sequential accessibility is the main access mode only in batch units, where records are offered and also updated at consistent intervals.

2. Direct access - on-line processing requires direct access, whereby a record deserve to be accessed without accessing the documents between it and the beginning of the file. The main key serves to identify the required document.

Tright here are 3 approaches of file organization:

1. Sequential organization

2. Indexed-sequential organization

3. Direct organization

Sequential Organization

In sequential organization documents are physicallystored in a specified order according to a vital area in each record.

Advantperiods of sequential access:

1. It is rapid and also effective as soon as handling huge volumes of data that must be processed periodically (batch system).

Disbenefits of sequential access:

1. Requires that all brand-new transactions be sorted into the correct sequence for sequential access processing.

2. Locating, storing, modifying, deleting, or adding documents in the file calls for rearranging the file.

3. This technique is as well sluggish to manage applications requiring immediate updating or responses.

Indexed-Sequential Organization

In the indexed-sequential papers strategy, documents arephysically stored in sequential order on a magnetic disk or other straight access storagedevice based upon the key area of each document. Each file contains an index that referencesone or more vital areas of each information record to its storage place deal with.

Direct Organization

Direct file organization provides the fastest directaccess to records. When making use of straight access approaches, documents execute not need to be arranged inany type of certain sequence on storage media. Characteristics of the straight access methodinclude:

1. Computers must keep track of the storage area of each document making use of a range of direct organization methods so that information deserve to be retrieved once required.

2. New transactions" data execute not need to be sorted.

3. Processing that requires prompt responses or updating is conveniently performed.

6.3 Database Environment

A database is an organized collection of interrelateddata that serves a number of applications in an enterpclimb. The database stores not onlythe values of the qualities of miscellaneous entities yet likewise the relationships between theseentities. A database is controlled by a database monitoring device (DBMS), a devices softwarethat gives assistance in managing databases common by many customers.


1. Helps organize data for efficient accessibility by a range of individuals via different accessibility needs and for effective storage.

2. It provides it feasible to develop, accessibility, preserve, and control databases.

3. Thturbulent a DBMS, information can be included and presented on demand.

Advanteras of a database administration approach:

1. Avoiding unregulated information redundancy and also staying clear of inconsistency

2. Program-data independence

3. Flexible accessibility to shared data

4. Advantages of central regulate of data

6.4 Levels of File Definition in Databases

The user see of a DBMS becomes the basis for the datemodelling steps where the relationships in between data facets are determined. These datamodels define the logical relationships among the data aspects essential to support a basiccompany process. A DBMS serves as a logical frame (schema, subschema, and also physical)on which to base the physical architecture of databases and the breakthrough of applicationprograms to assistance the company procedures of the organization. A DBMS allows us tospecify a database on 3 levels:

1. Schema - is an as a whole logical see ofthe relationships in between data in a database.

2.Subschema - is a logical view ofdata relationships needed to support certain finish user application programs that willaccessibility the database.

3.Physical - looks at just how information isphysically arranged, stored, and also accessed on the magnetic disks and also other secondarystorage tools of a computer system mechanism.

A DBMS provides the language, called datainterpretation language (DDL), for defining the database objects on the 3 levels.It also gives a language for manipulating the information, referred to as the data manipulationlanguage (DML), which makes it feasible to accessibility documents, change worths ofattributes, and delete or insert documents.

6.5 Documents Models or How to RepresentRelationships in between Data

A data design is a technique for arranging databases onthe logical level, the level of the schema and subschemas. The main problem in such amodel is just how to reexisting relationships among database records. The relationships amongthe many kind of individual records in databases are based on among a number of logical dataframeworks or models. DBMS are designed to carry out end individuals via quick, basic access toindevelopment stored in databases. Three principal models include:

1. Hierarchical Structure

2. Netoccupational Structure

3. Relational Structure


Early mainstructure DBMS packeras provided the hierarchicalstructure, in which:

1. Relationships in between records develop a power structure or tree choose framework.

2. Records are dependent and also arranged in multilevel structures, consisting of one root record & any variety of subordinate levels.

3. Relationships among the records are one-to-many kind of, because each data element is associated just to one facet over it.

4. Data facet or record at the highest possible level of the hierarchy is dubbed the root aspect. Any information aspect have the right to be accessed by moving increasingly downward from the root and also along the branches of the tree until the desired document is situated.

Network-related Structure:

The network structure:

1. Can reexisting more complicated logical relationships, and is still provided by many kind of mainstructure DBMS packeras.

2. Allows many-to-many kind of connection among records. That is, the netoccupational version deserve to accessibility a data facet by complying with among numerous paths, bereason any kind of information facet or document can be pertained to any kind of variety of various other information elements.

Relational Structure:

The relational structure:

1. Many popular of the three database structures.

2. Used by most microcomputer system DBMS packages, as well as many type of minicomputer and mainframework units.

3. Documents facets within the database are stored in the form of basic tables. Tables are associated if they contain prevalent areas.

4. DBMS packperiods based upon the relational model deserve to connect information facets from various tables to administer indevelopment to customers.

Evaluation of Database Structures

Hierarchical Data Structure Ease with which information can be stored and also retrieved in structured, regime forms of transactions.

Ease through which data deserve to be extracted for reporting functions.

Routine kinds of transaction handling is rapid and effectively.

Hierarchical one-to many kind of relationships should be mentioned in advancement, and also are not versatile. Cannot conveniently manage ad hoc researches for indevelopment.

Modifying a ordered database structure is facility.

Great deal of redundancy.

Requires understanding of a programming language.

Network Structure More flexible that the hierarchical model.Ability to administer innovative logical relationships among the records Netjob-related many-to-many kind of relationships must be mentioned in advanceUser is limited to retrieving information that have the right to be accessed making use of the establimelted links in between documents. Cannot easily manage ad hoc researches for information.

Requires expertise of a programming language.

Relational Structure Flexible in that it can take care of ad hoc indevelopment researches.Easy for programmers to work-related with. End customers deserve to usage this design through litter effort or training.

Easier to keep than the ordered and also netoccupational models.

Cannot procedure big amounts of organization transactions as easily and also successfully as the hierarchical and netoccupational models.
6.6 Relational Databases

A relational database is a collection of tables. Such adatabase is relatively straightforward for end users to understand also. Relational databases affordflexibility throughout the information and also are straightforward to understand also and also modify.

1. Select, which selects from a specified table the rows that meet a offered condition.

2. Project, which selects from a offered table the mentioned attribute values

3. Join, which builds a brand-new table from 2 stated tables.

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The power of the relational model derives from the joinprocedure. It is precisely because records are concerned one another via a joinoperation, quite than via web links, that we carry out not need a preidentified access path. Thejoin procedure is also highly time-consuming, requiring accessibility to many type of records stored ondisk in order to find the essential records.

6.7 SQL - A Relational Query Language

Structured Query Langueras (SQL) has end up being aninternational standard accessibility language for specifying and manipulating information in databases. Itis a data-definition-and-monitoring language of a lot of renowned DBMS, consisting of somenonrelational ones. SQL may be provided as an independent query language to define the objectsin a database, enter the information right into the database, and accessibility the information. The so-calledembedded SQL is additionally provided for programming in procedural languages (Ahost