For this analysis we surveyed 3,030 U.S. Hispanic adults in December 2019 as component of the 2019 National Survey of Latinos. We asked survey respondents around their awareness of the term Latinx and also their views of the term. The sample includes 2,094 Hispanic adults that were members of Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an digital survey panel that is recruited with national, random sampling of residential addresses. It also contains an oversample of 936 respondents sampled from Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel, an additional virtual survey panel also recruited with nationwide, random sampling of residential addresses. For the objectives of this report, references to foreign-born Hispanics include those born in Puerto Rico. Individuals born in Puerto Rico are U.S. citizens by birth. The survey was conducted in both English and Spanish.
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See the Methodology area of this report for more details.
The terms Hispanic and also Latino are provided interchangeably in this report.
Latinx is a term supplied to define world that are of or relate to Latin American beginning or descent. It is a gender-neutral or nonbinary alternate to Latino or Latina.
U.S. born describes persons born in the United States and also those born in other nations to paleas at leastern one of whom was a U.S. citizen.
Foreign born describes persons born exterior of the USA to paleas neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The terms international born and also immiapprove are used interchangeably in this report. For the purposes of this report, international born likewise contains those born in Puerto Rico. Although people born in Puerto Rico are U.S. citizens by birth, they are had among the international born for this report bereason they are born right into a Spanish-leading society and because on many points their attitudes, views and also beliefs are a lot closer to Hispanics born awide than to Hispanics born in the 50 claims or the District of Columbia, even those that recognize themselves as being of Puerto Rican origin.
Second generation refers to people born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia through at leastern one first-generation, or immiprovide, parent.
Third and higher generation refers to human being born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia with both parents born in the 50 claims or the District of Columbia.
Language dominance is a compowebsite meacertain based upon self-explained assessments of speaking and reading abilities. Spanish-dominant world are more experienced in Spanish than in English (i.e., they sheight and also read Spanish “incredibly well” or “pretty well” but price their English-speaking and also analysis capability lower). Bilingual refers to human being that are experienced in both English and Spanish. English-dominant people are even more skilled in English than in Spanish.
Pan-ethnic labels describing the U.S. population of world tracing their roots to Latin America and also Spain have been presented over the decades, climbing and falling in popularity. Today, the two dominant labels in use are Hispanic and also Latino, with beginnings in the 1970s and 1990s respectively.
However, for the populace it is intended to describe, only 23% of UNITED STATE adults that self-determine as Hispanic or Latino have heard of the term Latinx, and also simply 3% say they usage it to define themselves, according to a nationally representative, bilingual survey of U.S. Hispanic adults carried out in December 2019 by Pew Research Center.
The emergence of Latinx synchronizes through a worldwide motion to present gender-neutral nouns and also pronouns into many type of languages whose grammar has actually traditionally offered male or female constructions. In the United States, the first supplies of Latinx appeared more than a decade earlier. It was added to a commonly offered English dictionary in 2018, showing its better usage.
Yet the use of Latinx is not prevalent exercise, and also the term’s introduction has actually produced debate about its appropriateness in a gendered language choose Spanish. Some movie critics point to its origins among U.S. English speakers, saying it ignores the Spanish language and also its gendered create.1 Still, tbelow are examples of the term’s usage in Spanish in the UNITED STATE and also awide.2 On the other hand, others watch Latinx as a gender- and LGBTQ-inclusive term, showing a wider activity within the U.S. roughly sex identity.
In addition, the U.S. born are more most likely than the international born to have heard the term (32% vs. 16%), and Hispanics that are predominantly English speakers or bilingual are even more most likely than those who greatly speak Spanish to say the exact same (29% for both vs. 7%).
Hispanics who determine through or lean towards the Democratic Party are even more most likely to have actually heard of Latinx than those who determine through or lean towards the Republideserve to Party (29% vs. 16%).
Awareness of the term Latinx does not necessarily interpret into use. Across many demographic subteams, the share of Hispanics that say they use Latinx to define their own identity is significantly lower than the share who say they have actually heard it. Use is one of the highest possible for Hispanic womales periods 18 to 29 – 14% say they use it, a considerably greater share than the 1% of Hispanic men in the same age group who say they use it.
The appearance of Hispanic, Latino and also Latinx
Throughout the last half-century in the UNITED STATE, different pan-ethnic terms have actually occurred to describe Americans who trace their roots to Latin America and also Spain.
The term Hispanic was first used by the UNITED STATE government in the 1970s after Mexican American and also various other Hispanic organizations lobbied the federal government to collect information on the population. Subsequently, the U.S Congress passed Public Law 94-311 in 1976, mandating the collection of indevelopment around U.S. occupants of Mexideserve to, Puerto Rihave the right to, Cuban, Central Amerihave the right to, South Amerihave the right to and other Spanish-speaking country beginnings. The regulation dubbed for the UNITED STATE Census Bureau to create a wider category that incorporated all civilization that established having roots from these countries. The term Hispanic was initially supplied in a full census in 1980.
The 1990s lugged resistance to the term Hispanic, as it adopted a strong link with Spain, and an alternate term emerged: Latino. By 1997, the UNITED STATE Office of Management and Spending Plan issued a directive adding the term Latino to federal government publications. The 2 terms are used interchangeably, with Latino first appearing on the U.S. census in 2000, alongside Hispanic.
More recently, Latinx has arised as an alternate to Hispanic and Latino. Online searches for the term among the general U.S. population showed up virtual in the beforehand 2000s. But the initially substantial rise in searcs (relative to all digital searches) showed up in June 2016 following a shooting at Pulse nightclub, an LGBTQ dance club in Orlando, Florida, that was hosting its Latin Night on the date of the strike. In subsequent years, the term’s use on social media by celebrities, political leaders and grassroots establishments has actually grvery own. In addition, some academic centers at community colleges, public colleges and Ivy League universities are replacing Latino routine names that were established in previous decades through new Latinx-concentrated names.
In even more than 15 years of polling by Pew Research Center, fifty percent of Americans that trace their roots to Spanish-speaking Latin America and also Spain have actually continuously sassist they have actually no preference for either Hispanic or Latino as a term to describe the team. And as soon as one term is favored over one more, the term Hispanic has been wanted to Latino. Importantly, the exact same surveys present, nation of origin labels (such as Mexican or Cuban or Ecuadorian) are desired to these pan-ethnic terms among the population they are expected to explain.
Google searches for Latinx climbing in UNITED STATE, however trail much behind Latina, Latino and also Hispanic
The loved one popularity of Latinx in online searcs in the U.S. has increased because 2016, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of Google Trends data.3 While its earliest Google searcs extend back to the at an early stage 2000s, the greatest monthly relative variety of searcs for Latinx emerged in June 2020, surpassing a previous height in October 2019.4
Should Latinx be adopted as a pan-ethnic term for U.S. Hispanics?
While some Hispanics say Latinx need to be supplied as a pan-ethnic term, few say they favor it over others. A majority (61%) say they choose Hispanic to describe the Hispanic or Latino population in the U.S., and also 29% say they prefer Latino. At the same time, just 4% say they choose Latinx to explain the Hispanic or Latino population.
Preferral for Latinx as a pan-ethnic term is better among those who are conscious of it – 10% in this team say they prefer Latinx. Yet even among those conscious of Latinx, the terms Hispanic (50%) and Latino (31%) are preferred.
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In their very own words: What does Latinx mean to Hispanics?
When asked in an open-ended question what Latinx indicates in their very own words, 42% of those that have heard the term describe it as a gender-neutral one. As one 21-year-old womale shelp, “Latinx is an extra inclusive term to usage for those who perform not choose to recognize with a certain sex. The terms Latino and Latina are exceptionally limiting for particular world.”
Other responses from the open-finished question offer other descriptions of Latinx and also reactions to it. For instance, 12% of respondents who had actually heard of Latinx express disagreement or dischoose of the term. Some explained the term as an “anglicism” of the Spanish language, while others say the term is “not representative of the larger Latino community.”
Among other responses, 12% say Latinx is a term around being Hispanic or Latino, while 9% of those conscious of Latinx say it is an LGBTQ neighborhood inclusive term. And 6% of respondents that have heard of Latinx say it is a new, different or replacement term for Latino.