Question: We have actually disputed exactly how to asauthorize direct material and also straight labor expenses to tasks making use of a materials requisition develop, timesheet, and also project cost sheet. The third production cost—manufacturing overhead—calls for a tiny even more job-related. How carry out service providers asauthorize production overhead expenses, such as factory rent and also manufacturing facility utilities, to individual jobs?


Answer: Recall from Chapter 1 "What Is Managerial Accounting?" that manufacturing overhead is composed of all costs regarded the manufacturing process various other than direct products and direct labor. Since manufacturing overhead costs are hard to trace to specific jobs, the amount alsituated to each project is based upon an estimate. The process of developing this estimate calls for the calculation of a preidentified price.

You are watching: The recording of the application of factory overhead costs to jobs would include a credit to:

Using a Prefigured out Overhead Rate

The goal is to allocate production overhead prices to work based on some prevalent task, such as straight labor hours, machine hrs, or straight labor costs. The task provided to alfind production overhead costs to work is dubbed an allocation baseThe task used to allocate manufacturing overhead expenses to jobs.. Once the alplace base is selected, a preestablished overhead price deserve to be establiburned. The preestablished overhead rateA rate establimelted prior to the year in which it is provided in allocating manufacturing overhead expenses to work. is calculated prior to the year in which it is provided in allocating production overhead expenses to work.

Calculating the Preestablished Overhead Rate

Question: How is the preestablished overhead rate calculated?


Answer: We calculate the preidentified overhead rate as adheres to, utilizing estimates for the coming year:

Key Equation

Predetermined overhead rate=Estimated overhead costs*Estimated activity in allocation base**

*The numerator calls for an estimate of all overhead prices for the year, such as indirect materials, indirect labor, and other instraight expenses associated with the factory. Custom Furniture Company type of estimates yearly overhead expenses to be $1,140,000 based upon actual overhead costs last year.

**The denominator requires an estimate of activity in the allocation base for the year. Custom Furniture provides straight labor hrs as the alarea base and expects its direct labor workforce to record 38,000 straight labor hrs for the year.

The predetermined overhead price calculation for Custom Furniture is as follows:

Predetermined overhead rate=$1,140,000 estimated overhead costs38,000 estimated direct labor hours=$30 per direct labor hour

Thus each task will certainly be assigned $30 in overhead costs for every direct labor hour charged to the job. The assignment of overhead costs to jobs based upon a predetermined overhead rate is called overhead appliedThe assignment of overhead prices to tasks based upon a preestablished overhead rate.. Remember that overhead applied does not recurrent actual overhead prices incurred by the job—nor does it reexisting direct labor or direct material costs. Instead, overhead applied represents a section of approximated overhead prices that is assigned to a specific task.


Question: Now that we know just how to calculate the predetermined overhead rate, the following action is to use this rate to apply overhead to tasks. How carry out companies use the prefigured out overhead price to use overhead to tasks, and also just how is this information tape-recorded in the basic journal?


Answer: As displayed on the timesheet in Figure 2.4 "Timesheet for Custom Furniture Company", Tim Wallace charged six hours to task 50. Since manufacturing overhead is used at a rate of $30 per direct labor hour, $180 (= $30 × 6 hours) in overhead is applied to task 50. The journal enattempt to reflect this is as follows:


Recording the application of overhead prices to a task is further shown in the T-accounts that follow.


When this journal entry is taped, we also record overhead applied on the proper job cost sheet, simply as we did with direct materials and also straight labor. Figure 2.6 "Overhead Applied for Custom Furniture Company’s Job 50" reflects the production overhead applied based upon the 6 hours functioned by Tim Wallace. Notice that complete manufacturing expenses as of May 4 for task 50 are summarized at the bottom of the job price sheet.

Figure 2.6 Overhead Applied for Custom Furniture Company’s Job 50


*$180 = $30 per straight labor hour × 6 straight labor hrs.

Selecting an Allocation Base

Question: Although we offered straight labor hours as the alplace base for Custom Furniture Company’s predetermined overhead price, establishments usage various various other forms of allocation bases. The most prevalent allocation bases are straight labor hrs, straight labor expenses, and also machine hours. What components do service providers take into consideration as soon as deciding on an allocation base?


Answer: Companies typically look at the complying with 2 items as soon as determining which allocation base to use:

Ease of measurement. An alarea base have to not only be connected to overhead costs; it must likewise be measurable. The 3 most prevalent alarea bases—direct labor hrs, direct labor costs, and also machine hours—are fairly simple to meacertain. Direct labor hours and direct labor costs can be measured by utilizing a timesheet, as questioned earlier, so making use of either of these as a base for allocating overhead is quite basic. Machine hours have the right to additionally be conveniently measured by placing an hour meter on each machine if one does not already exist.

Why Use a Prefigured out Overhead Rate?

Question: The use of a preidentified overhead price quite than actual data to apply overhead to jobs is called normal costingA strategy of costing that offers a preestablished overhead price to use overhead to work.. Most providers choose normal costing over assigning actual overhead prices to work. Why carry out most companies prefer to use normal costing?


Answer: Companies usage normal costing for a number of reasons:

Actual overhead expenses have the right to fluctuate from month to month, causing high quantities of overhead to be charged to work in the time of high-price durations. For instance, utility expenses can be higher throughout cold winter months and hot summer months than in the loss and spring periods. Maintenance expenses could be greater in the time of slow-moving durations. Typical costing averages these expenses out over the course of a year. Actual overhead price data are typically just obtainable at the finish of the month, quarter, or year. Managers prefer to understand the cost of a job as soon as it is completed—and in some situations during production—fairly than waiting until the end of the duration. The price charged to customers is regularly negotiated based on cost. A preidentified overhead rate is helpful once estimating expenses. Bookkeeping is streamlined by utilizing a prefigured out overhead rate. One price is offered to document overhead costs rather than tabulating actual overhead expenses at the finish of the reporting period and also going earlier to asauthorize the costs to work.

Using a Manufacturing Overhead Account

Question: Using a predetermined overhead price to use overhead costs to work calls for the usage of a manufacturing overhead account. How is the production overhead account supplied to document transactions?


Answer: The production overhead account tracks the adhering to two pieces of information:

First, the production overhead account tracks actual overhead expenses incurred. Respeak to that production overhead expenses include all manufacturing expenses other than straight labor and direct materials. The actual manufacturing overhead expenses incurred in a period are tape-recorded as debits in the manufacturing overhead account. For example, assume Custom Furniture Company areas $4,200 in instraight materials into production on May 10. The journal entry to reflect this is as follows:


Other examples of actual production overhead expenses include manufacturing facility utilities, machine maintenance, and also factory supervisor salaries. All these costs are tape-recorded as debits in the production overhead account as soon as incurred.

Second, the manufacturing overhead account tracks overhead costs used to jobs. The overhead costs used to jobs utilizing a predetermined overhead rate are taped as credits in the manufacturing overhead account. You witnessed an instance of this earlier as soon as $180 in overhead was used to job 50 for Custom Furniture Company type of. We repeat the entry right here.


The following T-account summarizes how overhead prices circulation with the production overhead account:


The manufacturing overhead account is classified as a clearing accountAn account offered to host financial information temporarily until it is closed out at the finish of the period.. A clearing account is offered to host financial data temporarily and is closed out at the end of the duration prior to preparing financial statements.

Underapplied and Overapplied Overhead

Question: Because production overhead costs are applied to jobs based upon an approximated preidentified overhead rate, overhead applied (crmodify side of manufacturing overhead) rarely amounts to actual overhead prices incurred (debit side of production overhead). What terms are provided to define the difference in between actual overhead prices incurred in the time of a period and also overhead used in the time of a period?


Answer: Two terms are used to define this difference—underused overhead and also overapplied overhead.

Underused overheadOverhead costs used to jobs that are less than actual overhead costs. occurs as soon as actual overhead prices (debits) are higher than overhead used to work (credits). The T-account that complies with provides an example of underused overhead. Note that the production overhead account has actually a debit balance once overhead is underapplied bereason fewer costs were used to work than were actually incurred.

Overapplied overheadOverhead prices applied to jobs that exceed actual overhead expenses. occurs as soon as actual overhead costs (debits) are lower than overhead used to jobs (credits). The T-account that complies with provides an instance of overapplied overhead. Note that the manufacturing overhead account has actually a credit balance as soon as overhead is overapplied bereason even more prices were used to tasks than were actually incurred.

Business in Action 2.1

Job Costing at Boeing

Boeing Company is the world’s leading aeroroom firm and also the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliners and also armed forces aircraft unified. Boeing offers assets and also services to customers in 150 countries and employs 165,000 human being throughout the civilization.

Because the majority of of Boeing’s assets are distinct and costly, the firm likely provides task costing to track prices associated through each product it manufactures. For instance, the costly direct materials that go into each jetliner created are tracked making use of a project expense sheet. Direct labor and manufacturing overhead costs (think huge manufacturing facilities!) are also assigned to each jetliner. This mindful tracking of production prices for each jetliner offers administration via essential expense indevelopment that is supplied to assess manufacturing efficiency and profitcapacity. Management ca solution questions, such as “How much did straight products cost?,” “How much overhead was allocated to each jetliner?,” or “What was the total manufacturing expense for each jetliner?” This is necessary information as soon as it comes time to negotiate the sales price of a jetliner through a potential buyer like United Airlines or Southwest Airlines.

Source: Boeing, “Home Page,”

Alteraboriginal Approach to Cshedding the Manufacturing Overhead Account

Question: Although a lot of service providers cshed the manufacturing overhead account to price of goods offered, this is typically only done when the amount is improduct (immaterial is a widespread accountancy term provided to explain an amount that is tiny relative to a company’s size). The term material defines a fairly big amount. How carry out we close the production overhead account when the amount is material?


Answer: If the amount is material, it have to be closed to 3 various accounts—work-in-process (WIP) inventory, finiburned items inventory, and also cost of products sold—in propercentage to the account balances in these accounts.

For example, intend a firm has $2,000 in underapplied overhead (debit balance in manufacturing overhead) and also that the three account balances are as follows:

The $2,000 is closed to each of the 3 accounts based on their particular percentages. Therefore $1,200 is apportioned to WIP inventory (= $2,000 × 60 percent), $600 goes to finiburned products inventory (= $2,000 × 30 percent), and also $200 goes to expense of products marketed (= $2,000 × 10 percent). The journal entry to close the $2,000 underapplied overhead delittle bit balance in production overhead is as follows:

Although this strategy is not as common as simply cshedding the manufacturing overhead account balance to cost of items offered, providers carry out this when the amount is fairly considerable.

Key Takeaways

Most carriers use a normal costing system to track product prices. Typical costing tracks actual direct material costs and also actual straight labor prices for each task and charges production overhead to work using a prefigured out overhead rate. The predetermined overhead rate is calculated as follows:

Predetermined overhead rate=Estimated overhead costsEstimated activity in allocation base A manufacturing overhead account is supplied to track actual overhead expenses (debits) and used overhead (credits). This account is generally closed to price of products offered at the end of the duration.

Recheck out Problem 2.3

Chan Company kind of approximates that annual production overhead prices will be $500,000. Chan allocates overhead to jobs based on machine hours, and it expects that 100,000 machine hrs will be compelled for the year. Calculate the predetermined overhead rate. Why can Chan Company kind of use machine hrs as the overhead alarea base? Chan Company kind of obtained a bill totaling $3,700 for machine components provided in maintaining factory tools. The bill will be phelp following month. Make the journal entry to record this transactivity. Job 153 provided a total of 2,000 machine hrs. Make the journal entry to record production overhead used to job 153. What various other document will encompass this amount?

Assume Chan Company type of incurs actual production overhead prices of $470,000 and also uses overhead of $510,000 for the year. Account balances are as follows: WIP inventory, $25,000; finished goods inventory, $25,000; and also cost of goods marketed, $50,000.

Is overhead overused or underapplied? Exordinary your answer. Make the journal enattempt to cshed the production overhead account assuming the balance is improduct. Make the journal entry to close the production overhead account assuming the balance is product.

Solutions to Rewatch Problem 2.3

The prefigured out overhead price is calculated as follows:

Predetermined overhead rate=Estimated overhead costsEstimated activity in allocation base=$500,000 estimated overhead costs100,000 machine hours= $5 per machine hour

If Chan’s manufacturing procedure is extremely mechanized, overhead prices are most likely driven by machine usage. The more machine hrs offered, the greater the overhead costs incurred. Hence tbelow is a attach between machine hours and overhead costs, and also utilizing machine hours as an alarea base is preferable.

Machine hours are likewise conveniently tracked, making implementation fairly straightforward.


A total of $10,000 (= $5 per machine hour price × 2,000 machine hours) will be used to task 153 and also videotaped in the journal as follows:

This amount will also be tape-recorded on the job price sheet for Job 153.

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Overhead is overapplied bereason actual overhead expenses are reduced than overhead used to tasks. Also, the manufacturing overhead account has a credit balance.



*Amounts are calculated as complies with. Alplace amount = percent of complete × the overapplied balance of $40,000.