When you include “-ing” to a verb, you create a current participle. Or a gerund. The 2 components of speech look similar, but you use them differently. A existing participle is a verb. A gerund is a noun.

You are watching: The present participle form and the gerund form are identical


What part of speech is that?

Actually, it’s impossible to understand unless you watch in in context. Right now, you are analysis this article. “Are reading” is the current steady tense of read. In other words, “reading” is the existing participle.

But if you enjoy analysis, “reading” is the object of the verb. A verb can’t be a things of a verb. When word ends with “-ing” and also looks choose a verb but acts choose a noun, we contact it a gerund. Using gerunds and also current participles is usually straightforward, but beware of a couple of traps.

Using current participles

Some form of “to be” as an auxiliary verb plus a current participle creates gradual tenses. So if you see an “-ing” word offered with “to be,” it can’t be a gerund. It is a existing participle. We speak to it present participle, however that doesn’t tell us anything about time.

The tense of “to be” determines the actual tense of the verb expression. Here are examples of gradual tenses via the current participle “barking.”

Present progressive: The dog is barking.Past progressive: The dog was barking.Future progressive: The dog will be barking.Present out perfect progressive: The dog has been barking.Past perfect progressive: The dog had been barking.Future perfect progressive: The dog will certainly have been barking.

Present out participles deserve to likewise attribute as adjectives: the barking dog, the interesting book, the closing occasion, and so on.

Aobtain, it tells us nothing around time, and also the participle’s create doesn’t adjust via the verb tense.

Present: You hear a barking dog.Past: You heard a barking dog.Future: You will certainly hear a barking dog. (Etc.)

Using gerunds through possessives

Gerunds act choose any type of various other noun. They can be the topic of a sentence, the straight object of a verb, or the object of a preposition. As nouns, they can be singular or plural. They simply look choose verb forms.

People can get puzzled if they have to put a noun or pronoun before a gerund. Consider the complying with pair of sentences:

She appreciates me being a great prepare.She appreciates my being a good cook.

“Being” is the direct object of “appreciates,” therefore a gerund. Substitute any type of other noun: She appreciates __ excellent looks. Or also, she appreciates __ good food preparation. Would anyone fill either of those blanks through “me”? So the usage the possessive in front of “being,” too.

The very same principle uses if you substitute a noun for the pronoun:

She appreciates her husband’s being a good cook.She appreciates David’s being an excellent prepare.

Neither “husband” nor “David” have the right to be the straight object of “appreciate.” It’s feasible to possess “being” or any type of other gerund. So use a possessive noun or pronoun through it.

That’s the preeminence for formal creating. Informal writing and speech regularly flout it. Who knows if the dominion will be thought about obsolete or more strictly oboffered in a pair more generations?

Grammar vs usage

Here’s something else that’s odd, come to think of it. We have actually most likely all heard that it’s poor grammar to break-up an infinitive, finish a sentence with a preplace, or begin one via a conjunction (and, yet, or, yet). Those “rules” have nopoint to do through grammar. They’re matters of usage. And good writers can feel totally free to overlook them.

Using possessives in front of gerunds, on the various other hand also, is a matter of grammar. In the sentence, “she appreciates me being a good cook,” the straight object would certainly be “me.” What, then, is the attribute of “being”? It can just be the true straight object in the sentence, which specifically describes why “me” is incorrect and must be “my” instead.

Using gerunds through infinitives

Using gerunds in the exact same sentence via infinitives deserve to be even more confutilizing. Consider the adhering to choices:

I suggested walking in the park.I argued to walk in the park.

If English is your native language, you just know that the second choice is incorrect, however you probably don’t know why. If English is your second language, you might have actually had actually to memorize lists of verbs that require the gerund or the infinitive.

Some English verbs and verb phrases should be adhered to by a gerund. These encompass imply, prevent, disfavor, finish, remember, or understand also, and so on Others have to be adhered to by an infinitive. These include afford, agree, arrangement, seem, or desire, and so on.

English being English, there are some verbs that can be complied with by either a gerund or an infinitive and suppose the same thing. And trying to understand which ones? It renders no feeling at all.

One instance is “like.” I choose walking or I favor to walk. Either way, the statement provides the exact same point. But remember, if you dislike somepoint, you have to use the gerund!

On the various other hand, verbs such as forgain, remember, or speak can take either the gerund or the infinitive, however the meaning can readjust.

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Fortunately, all prepositions require gerunds. I can be afrhelp to loss (through “to” being component of the infinitive), however I cannot be afrhelp of to loss. After all, the object of a preposition have to be a noun, pronoun, or gerund. It can’t be an infinitive. When “to” is a preposition, it takes a gerund, as in, “I look forward to traveling.” Or “I favor food preparation to cleaning.”

Remembering these few rules must help you us gerunds (with or without infinitives) and current participles through confidence.