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European Plain, among the greatest uninterrupted expanses of simple on the Earth’s surconfront. It sweeps from the Pyrenees Mountains on the French-Spanish border throughout northern Europe to the Ural Mountains in Russia. In western Europe the ordinary is comparatively narrow, rarely exceeding 200 miles (320 kilometres) in width, but as it stretches eastward it broadens steadily till it reaches its greatest width in western Russia, wbelow it exhas a tendency even more than 2,000 miles.


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Since it covers so much region, the simple gives Europe the lowest average elevation of any continent. The flatness of this substantial lowland, however, is damaged by hills, specifically in the west.

Physical features

Physiography

The western and central European area of the simple covers every one of western and north France, Belgium, The Netherlands, southern Scandinathrough, north Germany type of, and virtually every one of Poland; from northern France and also Belgium eastward it commonly is called the North European Plain. In the east the simple primarily is dubbed the East European, or Russian, Plain.

Conditions in the North European Plain are facility in detail. The terrain is level or gently undulating. Many of the area was glaciated several times in the time of the Pleistocene Epoch (i.e., about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago), and the landscape is frequently postglacial. Drainage is poorly emerged, glacial deposits called moraine blanket much of the area, and also huge sections are underlain by glacial outwash levels. Hilly terminal moraines, marking the stationary edges of the Pleistocene ice sheets, are strewn in excellent arcs throughout north Germany type of and also Poland also and also into Belarus (Belorussia) and also western Russia. Interspersed through these moraines are lengthy parallel spillways where glacial meltwaters flowed to the sea parallel to the ice front. These spillways were extended with sand and gravel by the rushing glacial streams. Today they are inhabited by level, poorly drained wetlands that are relatively unfertile. Sandy duneland also boundaries the North and Baltic seas, and also comprehensive windblown loess deposits, resulting from the intense wind erosion of the barren interglacial and also postglacial landscapes, stretch throughout the North European Plain from France to western Russia.

Other landdevelops in the North European Level include the extensive delta ordinary of The Netherlands that is created by the deposits of the Rhine River as it enters the North Sea. Like many kind of various other delta plains, this area has affluent and also abundant soils and a level terrain that is favourable for farming wbelow it is correctly drained. The Rhine has actually historically provided excellent transportation, and the area is one of the most densely populated locations in the civilization.

Extfinishing from eastern Poland to the Urals, the East European Plain incorporates every one of the Baltic claims and also Belarus, virtually all of Ukraine, and also much of the European portion of Russia and also reaches north right into Finland. Finland in the northwest is underlain by primitive, resistant, crystalline rocks, part of the Precambrian Baltic Shield. Due to the fact that it was close to the origin of the Pleistocene ice sheets that advanced southward over continental Europe, Finland’s landscape is characterized even more by glacial erosion than by glacial deposition. With its plenty of lakes and also swamps caused by the disarranged and immature drainage pattern, together with its thin soils and also coniferous woodlands, the Finnish simple is similar in character and also appearance to north and also eastern Canada, another greatly glaciated Precambrian Shield location. The continental glaciers that planed, eroded, and also polished the rock surfaces in Finland deposited component of the product over the levels to the south.

The remainder of the East European Level is deeply underlain by a fairly rigid platform of ancient rocks. At miscellaneous times in its background, but, this location has slipped beneath the sea and also been extended with sedimentary rocks. These rocks have been mildly bent and warped, but nowright here have they been sharply dedeveloped. Consequently, the entirety area from the Black Sea to the Arctic is one uninterrupted ordinary, everywhere below 1,500 feet (450 metres) in elevation.

Climate

The climate on the whole is defined by marked seasonal alters, via cold winters and also heat summers. The west has actually a maritime climate exceptionally favourable to agriculture. It has sufficient rain in all seasons to keep areas green. Summers are warm yet not warm, and winters are cold yet not freezing. As one moves eastward, the ameliorating maritime affect diminishes, and also the character of the climate becomes more continental: rainfall is concentrated in the warmer months, summers are hotter, and winters come to be very cold. Spring and fall practically disshow up as separate periods, and also the greenness of the summer provides method abruptly each year to the gray drabness of a frozen winter. Agriculture in eastern Europe has a tendency to be more difficult and also less fertile than in the west.

Drainage

The Garonne and the Loire rivers, through their numerous tributaries, drain a lot of western France before they enter the Bay of Biscay, and the Seine crosses the wide synclinal lowland of the Paris Basin on its method to the English Channel. The Schelde (Scheldt) and its affluents (Lys, Scarpe, Dender, Demer) drain the Level of Flanders and the low plateaus of central Belgium. The Meusage (Maas) pursues a differed course via the scarp lands of Lorraine, crosses the Ardennes in a valley cut transversely to the framework, transforms at best angles alengthy the coal furrow of southern Belgium, and also then in a sweeping curve flows throughout the ordinary of the southern Netherlands to create a joint floodsimple through the reduced Rhine.

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The Rhine is the main river of west main Europe, 865 miles in length, crossing the assorted structural and also relief zones from its Alpine resources and also entering its plain course in the North Sea lowlands. Farther eastern the a number of generally parallel systems incorporate the Weser, the Elbe, the Oder, and the Vistula, which climb in the uplands of central Europe and circulation in a general northwesterly direction across the lowlands to the North or Baltic Sea. Each of these rivers reveals distinctive right-angle bends, the result of the Pleistocene ice sheets, the margins and terminal moraines of which lay alengthy an east–west line so that meltwaters escaping to the sea had to flow in a westerly direction, eroding wide intermorainal channels (Urstromtäler). When the ice sheets withattracted, the rivers occupied some sections of the east–west meltwater networks in between their northerly courses. During the 1nine and early on 20th centuries several of these networks were offered as courses to construct canals linking the north-flowing rivers. The Mittelland also Canal of north central Germany type of is the a lot of prominent of these.