Key Difference – Fermentation vs Respiration

Fermentation and respiration are 2 kinds of cellular processes, connected in the breaking dvery own of glucose in the cell. Both fermentation and respiration are catabolic procedures, generating power in the create of ATP. The major difference between fermentation and also respiration is that throughout fermentation, NADH is not offered in the oxidative phosphorylation in order to generate ATP whereas, in the time of respiration, NADH is supplied in the oxidative phosphorylation in order to geneprice three ATPs per NADH.

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This post looks at, 

1. What is Fermentation – Characteristics, Process 2. What is Respiration – Characteristics, Process 3. What is the Difference Between Fermentation and also Respiration


What is Fermentation

Fermentation is the chemical breakdvery own of organic substrates prefer glucose by microorganisms prefer bacteria and also yeast, typically providing off effervescence and heat. It occurs in microorganisms choose some bacteria, yeastern, and parasitic worms. Fermentation is localized in the cytoplasm of those organisms’ cells. The net yield of fermentation is just 2 ATPs. The process of fermentation occurs in two steps: glycolysis and partial oxidization of pyruvate.

Tbelow are two kinds of fermentation recognized as ethanol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. Ethanol fermentation occurs in yeastern in the lack of oxygen. Hence, they are referred to as facultative anaerobes. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in bacteria. In the absence of oxygen, pets also create lactic acid mainly in their muscles. Lactic acid is toxic to tproblems. Glycolysis is very same for both fermentations. During glycolysis, glucose is broken dvery own right into two pyruvate molecules, generating 2 ATPs as the net gain. Other than that, two molecules of NADH are formed by obtaining electrons from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Throughout ethanol fermentation, pyruvate is decarboxylated into acetaldehyde by rerelocating carbon dioxide. Acetaldehyde is converted right into ethanol by utilizing the hydrogen atoms of the NADH. The effervescence occurs as a result of the releasing of carbon dioxide gas right into the medium by the cells in the medium. Throughout lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted right into lactic acid, which is then oxidized right into lactate. The as a whole chemical reaction for ethanol fermentation and also lactic acid fermentation are offered below.

Ethanol Fermentation:

C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP

Lactic Acid Fermentation:

C6H12O6 → 2C3H6O3 + 2ATP


Figure 1: Ethanol and lactic acid fermentation

What is Respiration

Respiration is the set of chemical reactions involved in the production of power by completely oxidizing food. It releases carbon dioxide and water as by-products. Respiration is the a lot of abundant and many effective procedure among the procedures of energy manufacturing. It occurs in higher plants and also animals that are making use of complicated cellular procedures through high energy consumptions. Throughout respiration, 36 ATPs are created. The entirety procedure occurs in the cytoplasm and also mitochondria.

Respiration occurs via three steps: glycolysis, citric acid cycle and also electron carry chain. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell in the same means it occurs in the time of fermentation. The 2 pyruvate molecules created in the glycolysis is transferred right into the mitochondrial matrix. They release two carbon dioxide molecules, one from each and come to be acetyl-CoA throughout oxidative decarboxylation. This acetyl-CoA enters into the citric acid cycle, which is also recognized as Krebs cycle. Throughout the citric acid cycle, a single glucose molecule is completely oxidized right into six carbon dioxide molecules, generating 2 GTPs, 6 NADH and also 2 FADH2. These NADH and also FADH2 are combined via oxygen, generating ATP during oxidative phosphorylation, which occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. During the oxidative phosphorylation, electrons in NADH and also FADH2 are transferred via a series of electron carriers referred to as electron carry chain. The net yield of ATPs is thirty six in respiration. The in its entirety chemical reactivity is shown below.


C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP


Figure 2: Respiration

Difference Between Fermentation and Respiration


Fermentation: Fermentation is the chemical breakdvery own of an organic substprice favor glucose by microorganisms favor bacteria and also yeast, frequently offering off effervescence and also heat.

Respiration: Respiration is the collection of chemical reactions associated in the production of power by entirely oxidizing food. It releases carbon dioxide and water as by-products.


Fermentation: Oxygen is not required for fermentation.

Respiration: Oxygen is compelled for respiration.


Fermentation: No water is produced during fermentation.

Respiration: Water is created as a by-product in the time of respiration.


Fermentation: Fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm.

Respiration: Respiration occurs in cytoplasm and mitochondria.

Net yield of ATP

Fermentation: Fermentation generates just 2 ATPs by the breaking down of a single glucose molecule.

Respiration: Respiration geneprices 36 ATPs by the breaking down of a single glucose molecule.

Substrate Oxidation

Fermentation: The substrate, glucose is not completely damaged down in the time of fermentation.

Respiration: The substprice, glucose is entirely damaged down during respiration.


Fermentation: Ethanol fermentation and also lactic acid fermentation are the two kinds of fermentations found in organisms.

Respiration:  Aerobic and anaerobic respiration are two forms of respiration found in organisms.

Final Electron Acceptor

Fermentation: Final electron acceptor in fermentation is an organic molecule, typically acetaldehyde in ethanol fermentation and pyruvate in lactic acid fermentation.

Respiration: Final electron acceptor is largely oxygen.

End Products

Fermentation: Ethanol fermentation generates ethanol and carbon dioxide. Lactic acid fermentation generates lactic acid as the end product.

Respiration: Respiration geneprices inorganic end commodities, carbon dioxide, and also water.

NAD+ Regeneration

Fermentation: No ATP is created in the time of the regeneration of NAD+ in fermentation.

Respiration: Three ATPs are produced throughout the rebirth of NAD+ in respiration.

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Fermentation: No oxidative phosphorylation occurs throughout fermentation.

Respiration: In respiration, ATPs are produced from NADH and FADH2 with oxidative phosphorylation.

Type of Organism

Fermentation: Fermentation is typically uncovered in microorganisms prefer yeastern.

Respiration: Respiration is found in higher organisms.


Fermentation: Fermentation has actually a much less contribution in the manufacturing of power for the cellular processes on earth.

Respiration: Respiration has actually the greatest contribution in the manufacturing of energy for the cellular procedures on earth.


Fermentation and respiration are two procedures affiliated in the catabolism of organic substprices which are supplied as food in the time of the manufacturing of energy required by the cellular procedures. Throughout fermentation and also respiration, the potential energy stored in organic molecules are converted right into kinetic chemical power in the form of ATP. Both procedures begin with glycolysis, leading to 2 pyruvate molecules. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells on earth. Oxygen is not involved in the glycolysis. But in the presence of oxygen, pyruvate in the cytoplasm enters right into the mitochondrial matrix in order to undergo citric acid cycle, which totally oxidizes pyruvate. This finish oxidization just occurs in respiration. NADH and also FADH2 are likewise developed by the citric acid cycle. They are decreased by oxidative phosphorylation in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. In contrast, fermentation occurs in the absence of oxygen, inentirely oxidizing pyruvate either into ethanol or lactate. During ethanol fermentation, pyruvate is converted into acetaldehyde, which is then converted right into ethanol. The NADH created in the glycolysis of fermentation, donates its electrons to acetaldehyde while renewal. Therefore, the primary distinction between fermentation and respiration is the capability to produce ATP during the rebirth process of NAD+.

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Reference: 1. Cooper, Geoffrey M. “Metabolic Energy.” The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. UNITED STATE National Library of Medicine, 01 Jan. 1970. Net. 07 Apr. 2017. 2. Jurtshuk, Peter, and Jr. “Bacterial Metabolism.” Medical Microbiology. fourth edition. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 01 Jan. 1996. Web. 07 Apr. 2017.

Image Courtesy: 1. “Heterofermentative Milchsäuregärung” By Yikrazuul – Own job-related (CC BY-SA 3.0) through Commons Wikimedia 2. “By Darekk2 – Own work (CC BY-SA 3.0) by means of Commons Wikimedia