THE EARTH IS NOT spherical but fairly an ellipsoidal shape where the north and south poles are flattened and the equator bulges. This distinctive form is referred to as a geoid. In order to uniquely situate attributes on the Earth's surchallenge, a recommendation mechanism is compelled. An imaginary netoccupational of lines called a grid or graticule is superimplemented on the Earth to serve this purpose.

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Although the terms grid and graticule are used synonymously, tright here is a subtle technical difference in their meaning. A graticule is a referencing system tied directly to the Earth's ellipsoidal shape. On the other hand also, a grid is a network of perpendicular lines, a lot prefer graph paper, superenforced on a level paper map to carry out relative referencing from some addressed suggest as beginning.

The graticule is composed of longitude lines (meridians), which run north-south, and also LATITUDE lines (parallels), which run east-west. The longitude lines converge at the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere, and also at the South Pole in the Southern Hemispright here. The equator divides the Earth into 2 hemispheres. All meridians and also the equator are great circles since they deserve to create planes that cut the surchallenge and also pass via the facility of the Planet. Small circles such as latitude lines form a airplane that cuts the surconfront however does not pass through the facility of the Earth. In this mechanism of reference, geographical collaborates are measured in devices of angular degrees.


There are 360 degrees of longitude about the equator, with each meridian numbered from 0 to 180 levels east and also west such that the 180 degree meridian is on the oppowebsite side of the Earth from Greenwich, England. Tbelow are 180 degrees of latitude from pole to pole, with the equator being 0 degrees and the north and also south poles being 90 degrees. Each level is separated into 60 minutes (60') and also each minute is divided right into 60 secs (60”). The north-southern line is called the prime meridian, which has actually been arbitrarily collection to pass via the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England also. The longitude is measured as the angle in between the suggest, the facility of the Earth, and the prime meridian at the very same latitude. West is positive and also eastern is negative, meeting at 180 levels at the worldwide dateline. The east-west line adheres to the equator and also is midmethod in between the north and south poles. Degrees of latitude are measured as the angle between the suggest on the surconfront, the facility of the Planet, and also a allude on the equator at the very same longitude. In this graticule recommendation device, the size of the cells is biggest at the equator and also the areas are square. At the poles, the areas are smallest and also triangular.

When the three-dimensional Earth is projected unto a flat paper map tbelow are distortions in distance, area, and direction, and also the projection procedure attempts to minimize these distortions once moving the curved Earth to the level map. The projection procedure affects both the graticule and Earth attributes. On the level map tbelow is no natural reference suggest, however one can be defined utilizing an arbitrary system of works with. A grid of intersecting parallel and perpendicular lines is placed over the projected map such that the beginning of the grid lines fall on a suggest of interest on the map. This plan is referred to as a grid reference system, and eincredibly point on the flat map have the right to be located with a distinct X and also Y coordinate. Normally, the X coordinates are described as eastings and the Y coordinate as northings. An example of a grid mechanism is the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) mechanism.

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Graticules are always expressed in geographical works with (latitude and also longitude) while grids are expressed in some in your area identified X and also Y coordinate system. In projected coordinate units, graticules will show up as curved lines (once necessary) to follow the curved form of the meridians of longitude or parallels of latitude in the estimate. Grids, however, will always appear as an setup of horizontal and also vertical right lines.