Summary: Book 21

Achilles routs the Trojans and splits their ranks, pursuing fifty percent of them into the river well-known to the gods as Xanhence and to the mortals as Scamander. On the riverbank, Achilles mercilessly slaughters Lycaon, a boy of Priam. The Trojan Asteropaeus, given fresh toughness by the god of the river, makes a valiant stand also, however Achilles kills him also. The vengeful Achilles has actually no intention of sparing any kind of Trojans currently that they have actually eliminated Patroclus. He throws so many corpses into the river that its networks end up being clogged. The river god rises up and protests, and also Achilles agrees to stop throwing world right into the water however not to sheight killing them. The river, sympathetic to the Trojans, calls for assist from Apollo, but once Achilles hears the river’s plea, he strikes the river. The river gets the top hand and also drags Achilles all the way downstream to a floodsimple. He extremely practically kills Achilles, but the gods intervene. Hephaestus, sent out by Hera, sets the plain on fire and also boils the river till he relents.

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A good commovement now breaks out among the gods as they watch and argue over the huguy warfare. Athena deaccomplishments Ares and Aphrodite. Poseidon obstacles Apollo, yet Apollo refuses to fight over mere mortals. His sister Artemis taunts him and tries to encourage him to fight, but Hera overhears her and pounces on her.

On the other hand, Priam sees the humale carnage on the battlefield and also opens the gateways of Troy to his fleeing troops. Achilles pursues them and very nearly takes the city, yet the Trojan prince Agenor obstacles him to single combat. Achilles’ fight with Agenor—and through Apollo disguised as Agenor after Agenor himself has been whisked to safety—enables the Trojans enough time to scurry earlier to Troy.

Summary: Book 22

Hector now stands as the just Trojan left external Troy. Priam, overlooking the battlefield from the Trojan ramcomponents, begs him to come inside, but Hector, having offered the overconfident order for the Trojans to camp outside their entrances the night prior to, now feels also ashamed to sign up with them in their retreat. When Achilles lastly returns from chasing Apollo (disguised as Agenor), Hector confronts him. At first, the mighty Trojan considers trying to negotiate through Achilles, yet he quickly realizes the hopelessness of his reason and flees. He runs roughly the city 3 times, through Achilles at his heels. Zeus considers conserving Hector, yet Athena persuades him that the mortal’s time has actually come. Zeus places Hector’s and also Achilles’ corresponding fates on a golden scale, and, indeed, Hector’s sinks to the ground.

Throughout Hector’s fourth circle around the city wall surfaces, Athena shows up before him, disguised as his ally Deiphobus, and also convinces him that together they have the right to take Achilles. Hector stops running and also turns to challenge his opponent. He and Achilles exreadjust spear throws, but neither scores a hit. Hector transforms to Deiphobus to ask him for a lance; as soon as he finds his frifinish gone, he realizes that the gods have actually betrayed him. In a despeprice bid for glory, he charges Achilles. However before, he still wears Achilles’ old armor—stolen from Patroclus’s dead body—and also Achilles knows the armor’s weak points intimately. With a perfectly timed thrust he puts his spear via Hector’s throat. Near death, Hector pleads via Achilles to rerevolve his body to the Trojans for burial, yet Achilles resolves to let the dogs and scavenger birds maul the Trojan hero.

The other Achaeans gather round and exultantly stab Hector’s corpse. Achilles ties Hector’s body to the back of his chariot and drags it via the dirt. At the same time, up above on the city’s walls, King Priam and also Queen Hecuba witness the devastation of their son’s body and also wail with grief. Andromache hears them from her chamber and also runs outside. When she sees her husband’s corpse being dragged via the dirt, she too collapses and also weeps.

Analysis: Books 21–22

In this section of the epic, the feuds of the gods proceed to echo the battles of the mortals. As the human battles become ever more grave, yet, the magnificent problems in these episodes seem ever before even more superfluous. In their internal fighting, the gods carry out not influence or even try to affect the underlying concerns of the huguy dispute. Two of them explicitly swear off fighting over the mortals, though one of these, Hera, ends up doing just that. It appears that the gods are not actually fighting over the mortals however rather expushing the animosities that the mortal dispute has actually stirred in them. Although the struggle among the gods might remajor undefined within the plot of the epic, it adds range to the poem’s rhythm and also pacing, and elevates the conflict onto the epic, cosmos-consuming phase.

But these even more lighthearted or colorful episodes quickly provide method to among the poem’s the majority of deadly serious encounters, the duel between Hector and Achilles. Homer supplies a number of gadgets, including prophecy and irony, to develop a heavy sense of pathos. Priam’s speech comparing the glorious death of a hero with the humiliating death of an old male in a fallen city comes throughout as particularly heartbreaking if we understand, as Homer’s audience did, that Priam himself will soon accomplish the exceptionally death that he explains, amid the damages of Troy. When Andromache bewails the miserable life that Astyanax will have to endure without a father, a sharp feeling of irony improves the tragic effect of her words: Astyanax will endure this fathermuch less life only briefly, as he dies shortly after the fevery one of Troy.

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This section of the poem reveals a particularly skillful regulate of plot. Events interweave through one another in elaborate patterns. The weighing of Hector’s and also Achilles’ fates, for example, recalls however inverts the initially weighing of fates in Publication 8, when the Trojan army’s fate rises above that of the Achaeans. Hector must fight to the death in these episodes in order to redeem the honor that he loses earlier; after he recklessly orders his troops to camp exterior the city walls, the guys have to flee, leading to Hector good shame. In addition, Hector’s previously moment of glory, once he strips Patroclus of Achilles’ armor, speeds the minute of his undoing, for Achilles knows exactly wright here that armor is breakable. Such interrelationships in between occasions seem to suggest that the world has a cyclical or well balanced nature: one swing of the pendulum leads to an additional, and also an individual’s actions come earlier to haunt him.

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The final duel in between Achilles and also Hector becomes not just a duel of heroes however also of heroic values. While Achilles proves premium to Hector in terms of toughness and endurance, he emerges as inferior in regards to integrity. His mistreatment of Hector’s body is a disgrace, compounded by the cruelty in which he permits the rank and also file of his army to indulge. As we have watched, Achilles engeras in such indignities rather frequently and does so not out of any type of genuine principle but out of unmanageable rage. Hector, on the various other hand, entirely redeems whatever before fregulations he displays in the coming before publications. His refusal to go back to the safety and security of Troy’s walls after witnessing the deaths brought around by his foolish orders to camp outside the city demonstrates his mature willingness to endure the after-effects of his actions. His rejection of a despeprice attempt at negotiation in favor of the honorable course of fight reveals his ingrained sense of personal dignity. His attempt to secure from Achilles a mutual guarantee that the winner treat the loser’s corpse through respect highlights his decency. Finally, his last stab at glory by charging Achilles even after he learns that the gods have abandoned him and also that his death is impending provides his heroism and also courage noticeable. While Hector dies in this scene, the worths that he represents—the aristocracy, self-restraint, and respect—arguably survive him. Indeed, Achilles later on comes around to an appreciation of these incredibly values after realizing the faults of his earlier brutality and also self-centered rage.