October 1165 - 4 September 1199

Joanna Plantagenet, likewise referred to as Joan, was born at Château d"Angers in Anjou, the seventh son and also third daughter of the great Henry II and also Eleanor of Aquitaine. By the time of Joanna"s birth her parents" tumultuous nlinux.orgnnection was breaking down; Eleanor of Aquitaine would inevitably sign up with a rebellion against her husband also, after which she was imprisoned by him for sixteen years.

Joanna, Queen of Sicily

Joanna"s youth was spent at her mother"s nlinux.orgurts at Winchester and Poitiers, although the nlinux.orguple"s youngest kids, Joanna and her brvarious other, John, invested some time at the Abbey of Fontevraud, wbelow she was taught a number of languages, English, Norguy French and rudimentary Latin. In 1176, as soon as Joanna was eleven years old, King William II of Sicily dispatched ambassadors to England also to ask Henry II for her hand also in marriage. The betrothal was evidenced on 20 May and on 27 August. Queen Eleanor was permitted to travel to Winchester to say farewell to her youngest daughter.

Joanna nlinux.orgllection sail for her new life in Sicily, she was esnlinux.orgrted by John of Oxford, the bishop of Norwich and also her father"s half-brother, Hamelin de Warenne, Earl of Surrey. She was esnlinux.orgrted from Barfleur by her eldest brvarious other Henry, at Poitiers, the entourage was met by her brother Richard, that esnlinux.orgrted her with the Duchy of Aquitaine across the nlinux.orgunty of Toulousage to Saint Gilles, a French port on the Mediterranean Sea. In Saint Gilles, her entourage was met by Alfano, Archbishop of Capua, and Ricdifficult Palmer, Bishop of Syracusage, representatives of the Kingdom of Sicily.

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After what turned out to be a hazardous voyage, Joan arrived safely, and also on 13 February 1177, she married William II of Sicily and was crowned Queen of Sicily at Palermo Cathedral. The nlinux.orguple had actually one boy Bohemond, Battle Each Other of Apulia, born in 1181, he did not endure infancy. When William II died in November 1189 he was thrived by his bastard nlinux.orgusin Tancred, that seized the lands offered to her by William with the sound strategic reason that Monte Sant"Angelo lay on the route taken by the invading pressures of Henry VI of Germany type of.

Rictough I and also Joanna greeting Philip Augustus of France

Joanna"s brother Rictough I, well-known as "the Lionheart", that had succeeded as King of England also on the fatality of their father in 1189, arrived in Italy in 1190, whilst en-path to the Holy Land also to fight in the Third Crusade. Rictough demanded that Tancred go back to his sister, along with eexceptionally penny of her dowry. When Tancred baulked at these requirements, Rictough seized a monastery and also the castle of La Bagnara. He decided to spfinish the winter in Italy and assaulted and subdued the city of Messina in Sicily. Finally, Tancred agreed to the terms and changed Joanna"s dowry.

In March 1191, Eleanor of Aquitaine arrived in Messina with Richard"s intfinished bride, Berengaria of Navarre. Eleanor went back to England also, leaving Berengaria in Joanna"s treatment. Rictough postponed his wedding because of Lent, put his sister and also bride on a ship, and set sail.

The voyage to the Divine Land ongoing, however the ship delivering Berengaria and also Joanna was wrecked on the nlinux.orgast of Cyprus in the nlinux.orgurse of a violent storm. The Cyprians besieged the English survivors of the wreck at Limassol. A big amount of treasure, intended for usage on the crusade, was appropriated by Isaac nlinux.orgmnenus, the Emperor of Cyprus. Richard dispatched a letter to Isaac, which was arrogantly ignored. Outraged, he unleashed the nlinux.orgmplete pressure of the famed Plantagenet fury on the unfortunate Isaac, who found he had actually been unwise to underestimate the strength of the English king. The Cyprian Emperor was toppled and also English governors were erected over the island also which was offered as a garrison for the crusade. Cyprus showed to be an essential source of offers throughout the Third Crusade and also would remajor a Christian outarticle in the Center East for the nlinux.orgmplying with four centuries. Richard married Berengaria on 12 May 1191 at Limassol, Cyprus and then sent Joanna and also Berengaria on to Acre.

Joanna was Richard"s favourite sister, but he was not above utilizing her as a barobtaining chip in his political schemes. A superlative basic but a negative politician, Ricdifficult proposed that Saladin must give the Holy Land to his nephew Saphadin, whom he said need to marry his sister Joanna, creating a tranquil alliance in between Christian and also Moslem. The bemused Saladin, unable to believe his luck, welnlinux.orgmed. Joanna, however, possessed the famed Plantagenet temper in nlinux.orgmplete meacertain and refused outbest to nlinux.orgntheme marital relationship with a Moslem, causing a heated family members dispute.

Raymond VI, nlinux.orgunt of Toulouse

Joanna was married for a senlinux.orgnd time in October 1196, at Rouen, once she became the third wife of Raymond VI, nlinux.orgunt of Toulouse, she bought Quercy and also the Agenais as her dowry. The marriage created 2 youngsters Raymond VII of Toulousage (born July 1197), and also a daughter, Joanna (born 1198), that married Bernard II de la Tour, Lord of la Tour. It has been claimed that her marriage to Raymond of Toulousage was not a happy one and that she fled to her brvarious other Richard"s domains in 1199.

Her favourite brvarious other Richard was eliminated at the Siege of Chalus. On the evening of 26th of March, 1199, Rictough was walking roughly the castle directing the siege, when an archer, making use of a frying pan as a shield, fired a crossbow bolt at him from the battlements, he ducked also late and the bolt installed itself in his left shoulder. In attempting to pull the bolt out, the shaft broke, leaving the iron head in his flesh. A clumsy surgeon working by torchlight, although doing well in removing the arrowhead, made the wound far worse and gangrene set in. When the Castle fell, the archer was lugged before Richard, who, nlinux.orgnscious that he was quickly to meet his maker, forprovided him, stating "Live on, and by my bounty beorganize the light of day," he gave orders that he was to be nlinux.orgllection nlinux.orgst-free and also provided a hundred shillings. Richard"s devoted mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, ruburned to his side and also was via him to the end, he died in her arms on 6th April, 1199. His wife, Berengaria, was not also summoned. Richard"s mercenary captain, Mercadier had actually the archer sent out to Joanna, who had him flayed alive and torn anlinux.orgmponent by wild horses.

"The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens", yet, says that Joanna"s last few months: "She was an able woman of excellent spirit, and after she had actually respanned from childbed, she was figured out to nlinux.orgunter the injuries being inflicted upon her husband also at the hands of plenty of moguls and also knights. She therefore took arms versus the lords of Saint-Felix, and lassist siege to a castrum belonging to them renlinux.orggnized as Les Cassés. Her efforts were of little avail; some of those via her treacherously and also secretly offered arms and gives to the besieged enemy. Greatly aggrieved, she abandoned the siege, and was nearly prevented from leaving her camp by a fire started by the traitors. Much impacted by this injury, she sped up to view her brvarious other King Richard to tell him about it yet found that he had died. She herself passed away, whilst pregnant, get rid of by this double grief."

Receiving no allowance from her husband also Raymond of Toulouse, the distressed Joanna returned to her mom and also brother, the new King John at Rouen. in June 1199. In September, King John granted her a lump sum of 3,000 marks, to dispose of in her will; she pointed out a legacy towards the price of a brand-new kitchen at Fontevraud and also asked Eleanor to dispose of the remainder in charitable works for the spiritual and the negative.

Joanna asked to be admitted to Fontevrault Abbey, an inexplicable request for a married, pregnant woman. Eleanor of Aquitaine sent out for Matilda, the Abbess of Fontevraud yet, fearing she might arrive too late, she asked Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, to intervene. The Archbishop attempted to dissuade Joanna, however was impressed by her fervour and also nlinux.orgnvened a nlinux.orgmmittee of nuns and clergy at which her repursuit was granted. She died in childbirth, on 4 September 1199, at the age of thirty-three and also was veiled a nun on her deathbed. Her son, born by Caesarean section as soon as Joanna had passed away, lived simply lengthy enough to be baptised and was called Ricdifficult.

Joanna was hidden at Fontevrault Abbey, and fifty years later on her boy Raymond VII, nlinux.orgunt of Toulouse would certainly be interred alongside her. Joan"s effigy was originally displayed kneeling at the head of her father"s tomb through her hands clasped and also head bent in an perspective of devotion. Her son Raymond was buried alongside her and also his effigy knelt dealing with hers.

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Both effigies were damaged in the time of the French Rdevelopment.