Ionic bonds are one of the two primary types of chemical bonds. They form as a result of electrostatic attractivity in between oppositely charged ions and typically take place between metals and non-metals. When numerous ions bind together, they create a gigantic, regular, 3D structure referred to as the ionic lattice, or crystal lattice.

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Ionic bonding in between oppositely charged ions

What is an Ionic Bond?

An ionic bond is a form of chemical bond created by electrostatic attractivity between 2 oppositely-charged ions. These ions are developed by the transfer of valence electrons in between two atoms, generally a metal and also a non-steel.

How Are Ions Created?


Ions are produced when an atom loses or gains an electron. An atom that gains an electron becomes negatively charged, and is dubbed an anion. An atom that loses an electron becomes a positively-charged cation.

Throughout ionic bonding, 2 atoms (typically a metal and also a non-metal) exadjust valence electrons. One atom acts as an electron donor, and the various other as an electron acceptor. This process is dubbed electron transfer and creates 2 oppositely-charged ions.

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An ion is an atom with a net charge

How Are Ionic Bonds Formed?

Oppositely-charged ions have a solid electrostatic attraction in between them. This attraction is the ionic bond, and also it enables a positive ion and also an adverse ion to form a stable ionic compound via a neutral charge.


For instance, once a sodium atom meets a chlorine atom, the sodium donates one valence electron to the chlorine. This creates a positively-charged sodium ion and a negatively-charged chlorine ion. The electrostatic attractivity between them forms an ionic bond, bring about a stable ionic compound referred to as sodium chloride (AKA table salt).

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Ionic bonding in sodium chloride

Examples of Ionic Bonds

Some ionic bond examples include:

NaCl: sodium chloride NaBr: sodium bromide NaI: sodium iodide KF: potassium fluoride KCl: potassium chloride KI: potassium iodide KBr: potassium bromide LiI: lithium iodide Li2O: lithium oxide MgO: magnesium oxide MgS: magnesium sulfide MgSe: magnesium selenide CaCl: calcium chloride CaO: Calcium oxide CaSe: Calcium selenide

What is an Ionic Compound?

An ionic compound generally is composed of a steel and a non-steel. When numerous ions come together, they develop large frameworks dubbed ionic lattices. Ions in an ionic lattice arselection themselves in a constant, 3D form with oppositely charged ions alongside one an additional. This structure is additionally sometimes referred to as a crystal lattice.

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Structure of an ionic lattice

Properties of Ionic Compounds

In an ionic lattice, the solid electrostatic attractivity in between the oppositely charged ions acts in all directions, giving them a distinct set of properties.

Ionic Compounds Have High Melting and Boiling Points

Ionic compounds have actually high melting and boiling points. This is because it takes the majority of power to break the ionic bonds, thanks to the solid electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

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Ionic compounds have actually a high melting point

Ionic Compounds Shatter Easily


Ionic compounds are difficult yet brittle. It takes most force to break the ionic bonds that organize them together however, if enough force is used, they shatter easily. This happens because breaking the ionic bonds brings ions of the same charge together. The solid repellent pressures that exist between ions of the exact same charge makes them fly apart, leading to the ionic compound to shatter.

Ionic Compounds Conduct Electricity

A substance can conduct electrical energy if it contains charged pwrite-ups that are free to move about. All ionic compounds contain charged pwrite-ups (ions), however they cannot conduct power in their solid develop bereason the ions are not able to relocate. An ionic substance can only conduct electrical energy if it has melted or been dissolved in water, enabling the ions to relocate roughly.

What’s the Difference Between an Ionic Bond and also a Covalent Bond?

The 2 primary forms of chemical bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds, but there are some vital distinctions in between the two.

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Ionic vs. covalent bonding

Ionic bonds Covalent bonds
Bond between steels and non-metals Bond between non-metals
Involves complete deliver of electrons Involves sharing of electrons
Occurs between ions through substantially different electronegativities Occurs between atoms through comparable electronegativities

Whereas ionic bonds involve the finish transfer of electrons between atoms, covalent bonds are formed as soon as two atoms share electrons. This normally takes area between atoms of the very same facet, or in between two elements that are cshed to one one more in the routine table. Covalent bonds are the majority of most likely to create in between 2 atoms via similar electronegativities (i.e. those with a similar capability to lure electrons). They generally happen between 2 non-metals, though they may also be observed between steels and non-steels.

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Ionic bonds are primarily stronger than covalent bonds because of the electrostatic attractivity that exists in between oppositely charged ions.