December 23, 1776

THESE are the times that attempt men"s souls. The summer soldier and also the sunshine patriot will certainly, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; however he that stands by it currently, deserves the love and thanks of guy and woguy. Tyranny, prefer hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation via us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we attain too cheap, we esteem as well lightly: it is dearness only that offers eextremely point its worth. Heaven knows how to put a proper price upon its goods; and also it would be starray indeed if so celestial an article as FREEDOM must not be extremely rated. Britain, with an army to enpressure her tyranny, has actually asserted that she has a appropriate (not only to TAX) yet "to BIND us in ALL CASES WHATSOEVER" and if being bound in that manner, is not slaexceptionally, then is tbelow not such a thing as slaincredibly upon earth. Even the expression is impious; for so boundless a power deserve to belengthy just to God.

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Whether the self-reliance of the continent was claimed also soon, or delayed as well long, I will certainly not now enter right into as an argument; my own basic opinion is, that had actually it been eight months previously, it would certainly have actually been much much better. We did not make a appropriate usage of last winter, neither might we, while we were in a dependent state. However, the fault, if it were one, was all our very own ; we have actually none to blame but ourselves. But no great deal is lost yet. All that Howe has actually been doing for this month previous, is fairly a ravage than a conquest, which the spirit of the Jerseys, a year ago, would certainly have easily repulsed, and also which time and a tiny resolution will certainly quickly recoup.

I have as bit superstition in me as any kind of guy living, but my secret opinion has ever been, and also still is, that God Almighty will certainly not offer up a people to military devastation, or leave them unsupportedly to perish, who have actually so earnestly and so repeatedly sshould protect against the tragedies of battle, by eexceptionally decent strategy which wisdom might design. Neither have I so a lot of the infidel in me, as to intend that He has actually relinquished the government of the civilization, and offered us up to the care of devils; and also as I perform not, I cannot check out on what grounds the king of Britain have the right to look up to heaven for assist against us: a common murderer, a highwayman, or a house-breaker, has as good a pretence as he.

"Tis surprising to check out just how swiftly a panic will periodically run with a nation. All countries and also eras have been topic to them. Britain has actually trembled prefer an ague at the report of a French fleet of flat-bottomed boats; and in the fourteenth century the totality English army, after ravaging the kingdom of France, was propelled earlier favor males petrified through fear; and also this brave exploit was performed by a few damaged forces gathered and also headed by a woguy, Joan of Arc. Would that heaven could inspire some Jersey maid to soul up her countrymen, and save her fair fellow sufferers from ravage and ravishment! Yet panics, in some situations, have actually their uses; they create as much good as hurt. Their duration is always short; the mind shortly grows through them, and also acquires a firmer halittle than prior to. But their peculiar advantage is, that they are the touchstones of sincerity and hypocrisy, and bring points and guys to light, which can otherwise have lain forever ununcovered. In reality, they have the exact same impact on trick traitors, which an imaginary apparition would have upon a exclusive murderer. They sift out the covert thoughts of man, and hold them up in public to the world. Many a disguised Tory has lately presented his head, that shall penitentially solemnize via curses the day on which Howe arrived upon the Delconscious.

As I was through the troops at Ft Lee, and marched with them to the edge of Pennsylvania, I am well acquainted through many type of scenarios, which those who live at a distance know however bit or nopoint of. Our case there was exceedingly cramped, the area being a narrowhead neck of land in between the North River and the Hackensack. Our force was inconsiderable, being not one-fourth so great as Howe could carry against us. We had actually no army at hand also to have actually relieved the garrikid, had we shut ourselves up and also stood on our defence. Our ammunition, light artillery, and also the finest component of our stores, had actually been removed, on the apprehension that Howe would certainly endeavor to permeate the Jerseys, in which instance Ft Lee might be of no use to us; for it must take place to every thinking guy, whether in the army or not, that these sort of area forts are only for short-term purposes, and last in usage no longer than the opponent directs his force against the specific object which such forts are increased to safeguard. Such was our case and condition at Ft Lee on the morning of the 20th of November, when an officer arrived via indevelopment that the enemy through 200 boats had actually landed around salso miles above; Major General Green, that commanded the garriboy, instantly ordered them under arms, and also sent express to General Washington at the town of Hackensack, far-off by the method of the ferry = six miles. Our initially object wregarding secure the bridge over the Hackensack, which laid up the river between the enemy and also us, around 6 miles from us, and three from them. General Washington arrived in around three-quarters of an hour, and also marched at the head of the troops towards the bridge, which location I meant we should have actually a brush for; however, they did not select to conflict it with us, and also the greatest part of our troops discussed the bridge, the remainder over the ferry, other than some which passed at a mill on a small creek, between the bridge and the ferry, and also made their method via some marshy grounds up to the tvery own of Hackensack, and also tbelow passed the river. We lugged off as a lot baggage as the wagons can contain, the rest was shed. The basic object was to lug off the garrichild, and march them on till they might be strengthened by the Jersey or Pennsylvania militia, so regarding be allowed to make a stand. We staid four days at Newark, accumulated our out-short articles via some of the Jersey militia, and marched out twice to satisfy the opponent, on being informed that they were progressing, though our numbers were considerably inferior to theirs. Howe, in my bit opinion, committed an excellent error in generalship in not throwing a body of pressures off from Staten Island also via Amboy, whereby suggests he can have actually seized all our stores at Brunswick, and also intercepted our march into Pennsylvania; but if we believe the power of hell to be limited, we must likewise think that their agents are under some providential regulate.

I shall not now attempt to give all the particulars of our retreat to the Delaware; suffice it for the current to say, that both police officers and also men, though considerably harassed and fatigued, generally without rest, extending, or provision, the unpreventable aftermath of a long retreat, bore it with a manly and martial heart. All their wishes centred in one, which was, that the nation would rotate out and help them to drive the adversary earlier. Voltaire has remarked that King William never showed up to full benefit however in difficulties and in action; the exact same remark may be made on General Washington, for the character fits him. Tright here is a organic firmness in some minds which cannot be unlocked by trifles, but which, as soon as unlocked, discovers a cabinet of fortitude; and I reckon it among those sort of public blessings, which we do not instantly check out, that God hath blessed him with uninterrupted health and wellness, and also provided him a mind that have the right to also thrive upon care.

I shall conclude this paper through some assorted remarks on the state of our affairs; and shall start with asking the following question, Why is it that the adversary have left the New England districts, and made these middle ones the seat of war? The answer is easy: New England is not infested through Tories, and we are. I have been tender in elevating the cry against these men, and also provided numbermuch less disagreements to show them their hazard, however it will certainly not execute to sacrifice a people either to their folly or their baseness. The period is currently arrived, in which either they or we have to change our sentiments, or one or both need to loss. And what is a Tory? Good God! What is he? I need to not be afrhelp to go with a hundred Whigs against a thousand Tories, were they to attempt to gain into arms. Eincredibly Tory is a coward; for servile, slavish, self-interested are afraid is the structure of Toryism; and also a man under such affect, though he may be cruel, never deserve to be brave.

But, prior to the line of irrecoverable separation be attracted between us, let us factor the issue together: Your conduct is an invitation to the enemy, yet not one in a thousand also of you has heart enough to join him. Howe is as much deceived by you as the American cause is injured by you. He expects you will certainly all take up arms, and also flock to his conventional, through muskets on your shoulders. Your opinions are of no usage to him, unmuch less you assistance him personally, for "tis soldiers, and also not Tories, that he wants.

I once felt all that type of anger, which a male need to feel, versus the suppose principles that are organized by the Tories: a noted one, who maintained a tavern at Amboy, was standing at his door, via as pretty a boy in his hand, about eight or nine years old, as I ever before saw, and also after speaking his mind as openly as he thought was prudent, finimelted with this unfatherly expression, "Well! provide me peace in my day." Not a guy resides on the continent but fully believes that a separation have to some time or other finally take place, and a generous parent must have actually said, "If there have to be trouble, let it be in my day, that my kid may have actually peace;" and also this single reflection, well used, is adequate to awaken eincredibly guy to duty. Not a location upon earth could be so happy as America. Her instance is remote from all the wrangling world, and also she has actually nothing to do yet to trade via them. A man have the right to distinguish himself between temper and also principle, and also I am as confident, as I am that God governs the civilization, that America will certainly never before be happy till she gets clear of foreign ascendancy. Wars, without ceasing, will certainly break out till that duration arrives, and also the continent have to in the end be conqueror; for though the flame of liberty might occasionally cease to shine, the coal deserve to never before expire.

America did not, nor does not desire force; but she wanted a correct application of that pressure. Wisdom is not the purchase of a day, and it is no wonder that we have to err at the first establishing off. From an excess of tenderness, we were unwilling to raise an army, and trusted our reason to the momentary defence of a well-meaning militia. A summer"s suffer has now taught us better; yet via those troops, while they were accumulated, we were able to set bounds to the development of the adversary, and also, give thanks to God! they are aacquire assembling. I always thought about militia as the finest troops in the people for a sudden exertion, yet they will not execute for a lengthy campaign. Howe, it is probable, will certainly make an effort on this city ; need to he fail on this side the Delaware, he is ruined. If he succeeds, our cause is not damaged. He stakes all on his side versus a component on ours; admitting he succeeds, the consequence will certainly be, that militaries from both ends of the continent will certainly march to assist their experiencing friends in the middle states; for he cannot go all over, it is impossible. I take into consideration Howe as the best opponent the Tories have; he is bringing a battle right into their nation, which, had it not been for him and partially for themselves, they had been clear of. Should he currently be expelled, I wish through all the devotion of a Christian, that the names of Whig and Tory might never more be mentioned; however need to the Tories offer him encouragement to come, or assistance if he come, I as sincerely wish that our next year"s arms might expel them from the continent, and also the Congress correct their possessions to the relief of those who have suffered in well-doing. A single effective fight following year will work out the totality. America can lug on a two years" battle by the confiscation of the residential property of disinfluenced persons, and also be made happy by their expulsion. Say not that this is revenge, speak to it quite the soft resentment of a enduring people, who, having no object in see yet the excellent of all, have actually staked their own all upon a seemingly unconvinced event. Yet it is folly to argue versus determined hardness; eloquence might strike the ear, and also the language of sorrow draw forth the tear of compassion, however nopoint deserve to reach the heart that is steeled via prejudice.

Quitting this class of males, I revolve with the warm ardor of a frifinish to those who have nobly stood, and are yet identified to stand the matter out: I call not upon a few, yet upon all: not on this state or that state, however on eexceptionally state: up and also assist us; lay your shoulders to the wheel; better have actually too much force than also little bit, as soon as so great a things is at stake. Let it be told to the future human being, that in the depth of winter, once nopoint but hope and also virtue could endure, that the city and also the nation, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to meet and also to repulse it. Say not that thousands are gone, turn out your tens of thousands; throw not the burden of the day upon Providence, yet "show your belief by your functions," that God may bmuch less you. It matters not where you live, or what rank of life you organize, the evil or the blessing will certainly reach you all. The far and the near, the house counties and also the back, the wealthy and also the poor, will endure or rejoice afavor. The heart that feels not now is dead; the blood of his children will curse his cowardice, who shrinks earlier at a time as soon as a tiny could have actually saved the whole, and made them happy. I love the male that deserve to smile in trouble, that deserve to gather toughness from distress, and also thrive brave by reflection. "Tis the service of bit minds to shrink; but he whose heart is firm, and whose conscientific research approves his conduct, will seek his principles unto death. My very own line of thinking is to myself as directly and clear as a ray of light. Not all the prizes of the civilization, so much as I think, can have induced me to assistance an offensive battle, for I think it murder; however if a thief breaks into my house, burns and also destroys my building, and kills or threatens to kill me, or those that are in it, and to "bind me in all instances whatsoever" to his absolute will, am I to experience it? What signifies it to me, whether he who does it is a king or a common man; my countryguy or not my countryman; whether it be done by an individual villain, or an army of them? If we factor to the root of things we shall find no difference; neither can any kind of just cause be assigned why we should punish in the one situation and also pardon in the various other. Let them speak to me rebel and also welcome, I feel no worry from it; but I should endure the misery of devils, were I to make a whore of my heart by swearing allegiance to one whose character is that of a sottish, stupid, stubborn, worthmuch less, brutish guy. I develop likewise a horrid principle in receiving mercy from a being, that at the last day shall be shrieking to the rocks and also mountains to cover him, and fleeing through terror from the orphan, the widow, and the slain of America.

There are instances which cannot be overdone by language, and this is one. There are persons, too, that watch not the complete degree of the evil which threatens them; they solace themselves with hopes that the opponent, if he succeed, will certainly be merciful. It is the madness of folly, to suppose mercy from those that have refused to do justice; and also mercy, wright here conquest is the object, is only a trick of war; the cunning of the fox is as murderous as the violence of the wolf, and also we should guard equally versus both. Howe"s first object is, partly by risks and partly by promises, to terrify or seduce the world to supply up their arms and get mercy. The ministry recommended the very same setup to Gage, and this is what the tories speak to making their peace, "a tranquility which passeth all understanding" indeed! A tranquility which would certainly be the immediate forerunner of a worse ruin than any kind of we have yet assumed of. Ye males of Pennsylvania, perform reason upon these things! Were the earlier counties to offer up their arms, they would certainly loss a basic prey to the Indians, that are all armed: this perhaps is what some Tories would not be sorry for. Were the home counties to deliver up their arms, they would certainly be exposed to the resentment of the back counties who would certainly then have it in their power to chastise their defection at pleasure. And were any type of one state to offer up its arms, that state must be garrisoned by all Howe"s army of Briloads and Hessians to keep it from the anger of the rest. Mutual are afraid is the primary attach in the chain of shared love, and woe be to that state that breaks the compact. Howe is mercicompletely inviting you to barbarous damage, and also men must be either rogues or fools that will not view it. I dwell not upon the vapors of imagination; I carry reason to your ears, and, in language as simple as A, B, C, hold up fact to your eyes.

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I say thanks to God, that I fear not. I see no real cause for fear. I understand our situation well, and can view the method out of it. While our army was collected, Howe dared not threat a battle; and it is no crmodify to him that he decamped from the White Plains, and waited a expect chance to ravage the defenceless Jerseys; but it is good credit to us, that, with a handful of men, we continual an orderly retreat for near an hundred miles, brought off our ammunition, all our field pieces, the greatest part of our stores, and also had actually four rivers to pass. None deserve to say that our retreat was precipitate, for we were close to three weeks in performing it, that the country can have time to come in. Twice we marched earlier to satisfy the enemy, and stayed out till dark. The authorize of fear was not seen in our camp, and had actually not some of the cowardly and disimpacted inhabitants spcheck out false alarms via the country, the Jerseys had actually never before been devastated. Once more we are aobtain collected and collecting; our new army at both ends of the continent is recruiting fast, and we shall be able to open up the next campaign via sixty thousand guys, well armed and clothed. This is our case, and that will might understand it. By perseverance and fortitude we have the prospect of a glorious issue; by cowardice and submission, the sad alternative of a variety of evils - a devastated country - a deinhabited city - habitations without safety and security, and also slaexceptionally without hope - our homes turned right into barracks and also bawdy-homes for Hessians, and also a future race to carry out for, whose fathers we shall doubt of. Look on this picture and also weep over it! and if there yet stays one thoughtless wretch who believes it not, let him experience it unlamented.