The Aorta and Its Branches

The aorta is the biggest artery in the body and also is split right into 3 parts: the ascending aorta, arch of the aorta, and descfinishing aorta.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe blood is pumped from the left ventricle into the aorta and also from tbelow branches to all parts of the body.The aorta is split into three parts: the ascfinishing aorta (where the aorta initially leaves the heart and points toward the head), the arch of the aorta (wright here the aorta alters direction), and also the descending aorta (where the aorta points towards the feet).The ascfinishing aorta has actually 2 little branches, the left and right coronary arteries, that administer blood to the heart muscle.The arch of the aorta has 3 branches: the brachiocephalic artery (which divides right into right common carotid artery and also the ideal subclavian artery), the left widespread carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. These arteries administer blood to both arms and the head.Within the abdoguys, the descfinishing aorta branches right into the two common iliac arteries; these provide blood to the pelvis and, eventually, the legs.Key Termsdescending aorta: The area of the aorta that passes inferiorly towards the feet.ascending aorta: The area of the aorta directly attached to the heart that passes superiorly towards the head.arch of the aorta: The area of the aorta that transforms direction between the ascending and also descfinishing aorta.

The aorta is the largest artery in the systemic circulatory mechanism. Blood is pumped from the left ventricle into the aorta and from tbelow branches to all components of the body. The aorta is an elastic artery, interpretation it is able to distfinish. When the left ventricle contracts to force blood into the aorta, the aorta broadens. This stretching geneprices the potential power that helps keep blood pressure in the time of diastole, because during this time the aorta contracts passively.


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Diagram of Human Heart: This diagram of the huguy heart mirrors all the major vessels, and also arrows show the direction of circulation with the heart.


The aorta is divided into 3 parts: the ascending aorta, where the aorta initially leaves the heart and points superiorly toward the head; the arch of the aorta where the aorta changes direction; and also the descending aorta where the aorta points inferiorly towards the feet.



The ascending aorta has 2 small branches, the left and also appropriate coronary arteries. These arteries provide blood to the heart muscle, and their blockage is the reason myocardial infarctions or heart assaults.

The arch of the aorta has actually three branches: the brachiocephalic artery, which itself divides right into right prevalent carotid artery and the right subclavian artery, the left widespread carotid artery, and also the left subclavian artery. These arteries administer blood to both arms and also the head.

The descending aorta is the largest artery in the body; it runs from the heart dvery own the size of the chest and also abdoguys. It is divided right into two sections, the thoracic and abdominal, in correspondence through the two great cavities of the trunk in which it sits. Within the abdomales, the descfinishing aorta branches right into the 2 common iliac arteries that provide blood to the pelvis and, eventually, the legs.


Ascending Aorta

The ascfinishing aorta is the initially percent of the aorta; it contains the aortic sinoffers, the bulb of the aorta, and the sinotubular junction.


Learning Objectives

Describe the role of the ascending aorta in circulation


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe ascending aorta passes diagonally upward, forward, and to the ideal, in the direction of the heart ‘s axis.The aortic sinprovides end at the sinotubular junction, the allude in the ascending aorta wbelow the aorta becomes a tubular framework.The ascfinishing aorta has two branching vessels, the left and also best coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle.Key Termsaortic sinuses: An aortic sinus is one of the anatomic dilations of the ascending aorta, which occurs just over the aortic valve.sinotubular junction: The sinotubular junction is the point in the ascending aorta wright here the aortic sinoffers finish and the aorta becomes a tubular structure.bulb of the aorta: At the union of the ascfinishing aorta with the aortic arch, the caliber of the vessel boosts through a bulging of its ideal wall. This dilation is termed the bulb of the aorta, and on transverse section presents a somewhat oval figure.

The ascending aorta is a part of the aorta beginning at the top part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the reduced border of the 3rd costal cartilage behind the left fifty percent of the sternum; it passes diagonally upward, forward, and to the ideal, in the direction of the heart’s axis, as high as the upper border of the second appropriate costal cartilage. Its full size is around 5 centimeters.



The aortic root is the percentage of the ascending aorta start at the aortic annulus, the fibrous attachment in between the heart and also the aorta, and also extending to the sinotubular junction. Just above the aortic valve are 3 small dilations referred to as the aortic sinsupplies. The two anterior sinsupplies provide climb to the coronary arteries, while the third posterior sinus does not usually give rise to any vessels and also so is well-known as the non-coronary sinus.

The sinotubular junction is the suggest in the ascending aorta wbelow the aortic sinsupplies end and also the aorta becomes a tubular structure.

At the junction of the ascending aorta via the aortic arch, the caliber of the vessel rises with a bulging of its appropriate wall. This dilatation is termed the “bulb of the aorta.” The ascending aorta is consisted of within the pericardium. It is enclosed in a tube of the serous pericardium, which additionally encloses the pulmonary artery.

The ascending aorta is spanned at its start by the trunk of the pulmonary artery and also, higher up, is separated from the sternum by the pericardium, the best pleura, the anterior margin of the right lung, some loose areolar tproblem, and the stays of the thymus. Posteriorly, it rests upon the left atrium and also right pulmonary artery.


Arch of the Aorta

The arch of the aorta adheres to the ascending aorta and also starts at the level of the second sternocostal articulation of the appropriate side.


Learning Objectives

Describe the function of arch of the aorta


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThree vessels come out of the aortic arch: the brachiocephalic artery, the left widespread carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery.These vessels supply blood to the head, neck, thorax and top limbs.In some people, the left common carotid artery and also left subclavian artery might aclimb from the brachiocephalic artery fairly than the aortic arch.Key Termsarch of the aorta: Also dubbed the transverse aortic arch, is consistent with the top border of the ascending aorta and also starts at the level of the upper border of the second sternocostal articulation of the appropriate side.

The arch of the aorta, or the transverse aortic arch, is consistent through the upper border of the ascfinishing aorta and begins at the level of the upper border of the second sternocostal articulation of the best side. The arch of the aorta runs at initially upward, backward, and also to the left in front of the trachea; it is then directed backward on the left side of the trachea and also finally passes downward on the left side of the body of the fourth thoracic vertebra. At the lower border, this vertebra becomes consistent through the descending aorta.

Three vessels come out of the aortic arch: the brachiocephalic artery, the left widespread carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. These vessels supply blood to the head, neck, thorax and also top limbs. In about 20% of people, the left prevalent carotid artery arises from the brachiocephalic artery rather than the aortic arch, and also in around 7% of people the left subclavian artery additionally arises below.

Thoracic Aorta

The thoracic aorta is the section of the aorta that travels via the thoracic cavity to carry blood to the head, neck, thorax and also arms.


Learning Objectives

Explain the feature of the thoracic aorta


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe thoracic aorta is had in the posterior mediastinal cavity, begins at the fourth thoracic vertebra wright here it is constant via the aortic arch, and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra.Branches from the thoracic aorta include the bronchial arteries, the mediastinal arteries, the esophageal arteries, the pericardial arteries, and the premium phrenic artery.The thoracic aorta and the esophagus run parallel for many of its length, via the esophagus lying on the right side of the aorta. At the reduced part of the thorax, the esophagus is placed in front of the aorta, situated on its left side cshed to the diaphragm..Key Termsmediastinal cavity: The central compartment of the thoracic cavity. It contains the heart, the good vessels of the heart, the esophagus, the trachea, the phrenic nerve, the cardiac nerve, the thoracic duct, the thymus, and also the lymph nodes of the central chest.Thoracic Aorta: Contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity, it starts at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra where it is consistent through the aortic arch, and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta forms part of the descending aorta and also is constant with the aortic arch at its beginning before coming to be the abdominal aorta. Contained within the posterior mediastinal cavity, it begins at the reduced border of the fourth thoracic vertebra wright here it is consistent with the aortic arch, and also ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm. At its commencement, the thoracic aorta is located on the left of the vertebral column; it approaches the median line as it descends, and at its termination lies directly in front of the column.

The thoracic aorta’s relation, from above downward, is as follows: anteriorly with the root of the left lung, the pericardium, the esophagus and also the diaphragm; posteriorly via the vertebral column; on the appropriate side with the hemiazygos veins and also thoracic duct; and on the left side via the left pleura and lung. The esophagus lies on the appropriate side of the aorta for the majority of of its size, however at the reduced part of the thorax is put in front of the aorta and also cshed to the diaphragm, located on its left side.

As it descends in the thorax, the aorta provides off a number of paired branches. In descending order these are the bronchial arteries, the mediastinal arteries, the esophageal arteries, the pericardial arteries, and the exceptional phrenic artery. The posterior intercostal arteries are branches that originate throughout the size of the posterior facet of the thoracic aorta.


Ab Aorta

The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity and also offers blood to many of the abdominal organs.


Learning Objectives

Describe the abdominal aorta


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe abdominal aorta lies slightly to the left of the midline of the body.The abdominal aorta has actually a venous counterpart referred to as the inferior vena cava that travels parallel to it on its best side.The abdominal aorta branches right into many type of arteries that supply blood to the abdominal organs.Key Termsabdominal aorta: The largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As component of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of the descfinishing aorta (of the thorax).omentum: Either of two folds of the peritoneum that assistance the viscera.inferior vena cava: The huge vein which returns blood from the lower extremities and also the pelvic and abdominal organs to the right atrium of the heart.

The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As component of the descending aorta, it is a straight extension of the thoracic aorta.

It begins at the level of the diaphragm, crossing it by means of the aortic hiatus. This hole in the diaphragm that permits the passage of the great vessels at the vertebral level of T12. The abdominal aorta travels dvery own the posterior wall of the abdomales, anterior to the vertebral column, adhering to the curvature of the lumbar vertebrae. The abdominal aorta runs parallel to the inferior vena cava, situated simply to the appropriate of the abdominal aorta.

The abdominal aorta lies slightly to the left of the midline of the body. It is covered anteriorly by the lesser omentum and stomach. Posteriorly, it is separated from the lumbar vertebrae by the anterior longitudinal ligament and left lumbar veins.

The abdominal aorta supplies blood to much of the abdominal cavity through plenty of branches that come to be smaller in diameter as it descends. Terminally it branches right into the paired widespread iliac arteries, which supply the pelvis and also reduced limbs.


Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs

The abdominal aorta divides into the major arteries of the leg: the femoral, popliteal, tibial, dorsal foot, plantar, and also fibular arteries.


Learning Objectives

Overview blood flow in the arteries of the pelvis and reduced limbs


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe pelvic cavity is provided by the paired interior iliac arteries.The interior iliac artery divides right into posterior and also anterior trunks which supply the reproductive and also various other organs of the pelvis via blood.Key Termsinternal iliac arteries: Formed once the common iliac artery divides the inner iliac artery at the vertebral level L5 descends inferiorly into the lesser pelvis.

The pelvic cavity is mostly gave by the paired internal iliac arteries, created as soon as the widespread iliac artery divides the internal iliac artery at the vertebral level L5 descends inferiorly right into the lesser pelvis. The exterior iliac artery passes right into the thigh, ending up being the feethical artery.

At the a lot of premium border of the higher sciatic foramales, the large opening to the rear of the pelvis, the internal iliac artery divides into anterior and also posterior trunks.

The anterior trunk gives climb to numerous arteries that supply the organs of the pelvis and the gluteal and adductor muscles of the leg. Key branches incorporate the obturator artery, the inferior vesical artery in guys and also the tantamount vaginal artery in females, and the rectal and also gluteal arteries.

The posterior trunk offers climb to arteries that supply the posterior pelvic wall and also the gluteal area, consisting of the iliolumbar artery that supplies the psoas significant muscle, the lateral sacral arteries, and also the superior gluteal artery.

Principal Veins

Veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart, have actually thin, inelastic walls, and contain numerous valves.


Learning Objectives

Distinguish among the major veins of the circulatory system


Key Takeaways

Key PointsVeins, blood vessels which return blood to the heart, are different in structure and feature from the arteries, which lug blood to the circulation.Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tconcerns back to the heart. The exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart, but the umbilical vein deteriorates soon after birth.The venae cavae are 2 big veins which drainpipe into the appropriate atrium of the heart, returning the majority of blood from the systemic circulation.Key Termsvein: A blood vessel that transporting activities blood from the capillaries back to the heart.

In the circulatory mechanism, veins are blood vessels that bring blood towards the heart. Veins have thin, inelastic walls, and also contain countless valves in order to proccasion backflow of blood. Most veins bring deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart with the exceptions of the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which bring oxygenated blood to the heart.


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Principle Veins: This diagram mirrors the primary veins of the huguy body and their areas.


Veins have the right to be broadly classified based on their depth within the body. Superficial veins are located cshed to the surface of the body and have no matching arteries, such as the great saphenous vein which runs the length of the leg. The deep veins lie deeper in the body and also often run surrounding to equivalent arteries, such as the femoral vein which sits nearby to the femoral artery in the thigh. Deep veins are often of bigger caliber than superficial veins and carry the majority of the blood within the circulatory mechanism. Communicating veins, or perforator veins if they pass through a large muscle mass, directly affix superficial and direct veins. The over veins create part of the systemic circulatory mechanism. The pulmonary veins and also venules that run from the lungs to the heart create part of the pulmonary circulatory system and also are distinct from other veins in that they carry oxygenated blood.

Venae Cavae

The venae cavae are the veins with the largest diameter. Both enter the ideal atrium of the heart via the remarkable vena cava moving blood from the arms, head, and thoracic cavity and the inferior vena cava moving blood from the legs and also abdomen. The inferior vena cava runs parallel to the abdominal aorta.

The remarkable vena cava is formed from the brachiocephalic veins which are in turn formed from the subclavian and inner jugular veins that serve the arm and also head respectively. The inferior vena cava is formed from the prevalent iliac veins that serve the legs and also abdomales. The renal and also hepatic veins from the kidneys and liver respectively additionally feed right into the inferior vena cava.

Other Important Veins

Other essential venous systems include the cardiac veins, which return blood from the heart tissue ago to the basic circulation. The cardiac veins merge into the coronary sinus, which empties directly right into the ideal atrium.

The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels which get oxygenated blood from the lungs and return it to the left atrium of the heart. There are 4 pulmonary veins, two from each lung, each of which creates from three to 4 bronchial veins. In approximately 25% of people, the left pulmonary veins might merge into a single vein; the exact same result on the best side is just checked out in about 3% of people.

The hepatic portal vein carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver. The portal vein is frequently described as a false vein bereason it conducts blood in between capillary networks fairly than in between a capillary netjob-related and also the heart. It functions to supply the liver with blood and also required metabolites, but additionally ensures that ingested substances are first processed in the liver prior to getting to the bigger systemic circulation.


Veins of the Head and also Neck

In the head and also neck, blood circulates from the top systemic loop, which originates at the aortic arch.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe dural sinuses within the dura mater bordering the brain obtain blood from the brain. From these sinprovides, blood eventually enters the interior jugular vein.The head and also neck are cleared of blood by the inner and outside jugular veins.Key Termsjugular vein: Any of numerous veins on each side of the neck that drainpipe the brain, confront and neck of deoxygenated blood.

The superficial outside jugular vein is created from the retromandibular vein and also the posterior auricular vein at a point surrounding to the mandible. The outside jugular vein passes down the neck and underneath the clavicle before draining into the subclavian vein.

The deep-lying internal jugular vein receives blood from the dural venous sinprovides in the brain and also the cerebral and also cerebellar veins. Dural sinsupplies are written of dural mater lined through endothelium, making them distinct from arteries, veins, and also capillaries. The dural sinsupplies obtain blood from the veins that drainpipe the brain and skull.

Formed at the base of the brain from the inferior petrosal sinus and also the sigmoid sinus, the inner jugular vein runs dvery own the side of the neck nearby to the interior carotid artery. As well as removing blood from the brain, the anterior retromandibular, facial, and also lingual veins also drainpipe into the internal jugular. Upon exiting the neck, the internal jugular vein merges with the subclavian vein to develop the brachiocephalic vein.

Further veins such as the occipital, deep cervical, and thyroid veins drainpipe directly into the brachiocephalic vein.

Veins of the Upper Limbs

The veins of the top extremity are split into superficial and also deep veins, indicating their relative depths from the skin.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe brachial, radial, and ulnar veins are the significant deep veins that drainpipe blood from the arm.The major superficial veins of the arm include the cephalic and basilic veins, and also the median cubital vein which joins the 2 at the elbow.At the shoulder, the brachial and also basilic veins merge to develop the axillary vein, to which the cephaliac vein merges to create the subclavian vein.Key Termsbrachial vein: Runs from the elbow to the shoulder parallel to the brachial artery.cephalic vein: Arises from the dorsal venous netoccupational of the hand and also passes the elbow anteriorly, continuing up the top arm to the shoulder.median cubital vein: The vein that links the basilic and also cephalic veins.basilic vein: Located medially to the cephalic vein, complying with a comparable path.

(a) Deep veins of the upper extremity (b) Superficial veins of the top extremity: The veins of the upper extremity are divided right into two sets, superficial and deep. The deep veins are displayed in blue. The superficial veins of the upper extremity are displayed in blue.


Veins of the arm are either deep or superficial and also are responsible for draining the hand also and also arm.

The significant deep veins of the arm are the radial and ulnar veins, which run alengthy the length of their corresponding bones and merge at the elbow to form the paired brachial vein. The brachial vein runs from the elbow approximately the shoulder parallel to the brachial artery.

The significant superficial veins of the upper limb are the cephalic, median cubital and also basilic veins. The cephalic vein arises from the dorsal venous netjob-related of the hand also and passes the elbow anteriorly, proceeding up the top arm to the shoulder. The basilic vein follows a comparable course but is located medially to the cephalic vein. At the elbow, the basilic and also cephalic veins are linked by the median cubital vein, from which blood is often drawn.

At the shoulder, the basilic vein passes deep right into the arm and merges with the brachial veins to form the axillary vein, to which the cephaliac vein merges, developing the subclavian vein.


Veins of the Thorax

The veins of the thorax drain deoxygenated blood from the thorax region for go back to the heart.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsMajor veins of the thorax include the premium and also inferior vena cava.The premium vena cava is formed by the left and also ideal brachiocephalic veins, which receive blood from the upper limbs, head and also neck.The inferior vena cava retransforms blood from the abdoguys and also reduced limbs. The hepatic veins of the liver and renal veins of the kidney drainpipe straight right into the inferior vena cava.Key Termssupreme intercostal vein: A paired vein that drains the first intercostal room on its equivalent side.interior thoracic vein: Drains the chest wall and breasts.inferior vena cava: Retransforms blood from the abdomen and also lower limbs to the appropriate atrium of the heart.remarkable vena cava: Formed from the left and also ideal brachiocephalic veins, this vein retransforms deoxygenated blood from the upper fifty percent of the body and also carries blood from the top limbs, head, and also neck through the thyroid and also jugular veins.

Two venae cavae rerotate deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

The premium vena cava, formed from the left and appropriate brachiocephalic veins, retransforms deoxygenated blood from the upper fifty percent of the body and carries blood from the top limbs, head, and also neck using the thyroid and jugular veins. It is joined simply prior to entering the heart by the azygos vein, which runs up the right side of the thoracic vertebral column and also transporting activities blood from the outside thoracic cavity.

The inner thoracic vein is a vessel that drains the chest wall and also breasts. Bilaterally, it arises from the superior epigastric vein, acproviders the interior thoracic artery along its course, and terminates in the brachiocephalic vein.

The supreme intercostal vein is a paired vein that drains the initially intercostal area on its corresponding side. It generally drains right into the brachiocephalic vein.

The inferior vena cava returns blood from the abdomen and also reduced limbs to the ideal atrium of the heart. The renal veins from the kidney and hepatic veins of the liver drainpipe straight right into the inferior vena cava. Furthermore, the exceptional and also inferior phrenic veins drain the diaphragm and also generally open up into the inner mammary vein and inferior vena cava, respectively.


Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis

The major veins of the abdoguys and pelvis rerotate deoxygenated blood from the abdomales and also pelvis to the heart.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe exterior iliac vein, the upward extension of the feethical vein, passes upward alengthy the pelvis and ends to develop the common iliac vein.The tributaries that feed into the exterior iliac vein encompass the inferior epigastric, deep iliac circumflex, and pubic veins.The inferior epigastric vein refers to the vein that drains right into the outside iliac vein and also arises from the superior epigastric vein.Key TermsExternal iliac vein: Large veins that affix the feethical veins to the widespread iliac veinsTypical iliac vein: Formed by the outside iliac veins and internal iliac veins.

A variety of veins rerelocate deoxygenated blood from the abdomen and also pelvis. The external iliac vein, the upward continuation of the femoral vein, passes upward along the pelvis and also ends to create the widespread iliac vein.The tributaries of the external iliac vein are the inferior epigastric, deep iliac circumflex, and pubic veins.

The internal iliac vein begins close to the top part of the greater sciatic foraguys, the large opening at the rear of the pelvis, passes upward behind and also slightly medial to the inner iliac artery and also, at the brim of the pelvis, joins with the exterior iliac vein to form the widespread iliac vein.


The left and also right common iliac veins come together in the abdoguys at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, forming the abdominal vena cava. They drain blood from the pelvis and lower limbs.

The exceptional epigastric vein describes a blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood and also drains right into the inner thoracic vein. It anastomoses with the inferior epigastric vein at the level of the umbilicus and drains the anterior part of the abdominal wall and some of the diaphragm.

The inferior epigastric vein refers to the vein that drains right into the exterior iliac vein and arises from the exceptional epigastric vein.

The deep circumflex iliac vein is developed by the union of the venae comitantes of the deep iliac circumflex artery, and joins the exterior iliac vein around 2 cm above the inguinal ligament.


Veins of the Lower Limbs

The deep veins of the lower extremity have actually valves for unidirectional circulation and also acfirm the arteries and also their branches.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe tibial veins unite to form the popliteal vein.The femoral vein is the ascending part of the popliteal vein.The femoral vein acsuppliers the femoral artery right into the thigh. It is later on joined by the excellent saphenous vein creating the external iliac vein.Key Termspopliteal vein: Derived from the merging of the tibial veins it forms the femoral vein mid thigh.excellent saphenous ve: A long vein which runs the size of the leg prior to joining the femoral vein to create the external iliac vein.Femoral Vein: A blood vessel that acproviders the feethical artery in the thigh. It merges via the good saphenous vein to create the exterior iliac vein.Tibial Vein: Blood vessel of the calves which rerevolve blood from the foot, ankle and calf and merges right into the popliteal vein behind the knee.

The deep veins of the leg acfirm the arteries and also their branches and possess plenty of valves that assist in unidirectional blood flow. The musculature of the leg is key in generating push in the veins to prevent pooling.

The posterior and also anterior tibial veins rerevolve blood from the calf, ankle, and foot and also merge right into the popliteal vein behind the knee. The popliteal vein then carries blood from the knee joint up through the thigh. Mid-thigh, it becomes the feethical vein, which is carefully connected with the feethical artery. The femoral vein merges through the great saphenous vein in the groin to develop the outside iliac vein.


(a) Veins of the lower extremities and also (b) Veins of the lower extremities: The great saphenous vein and its tributaries, shown in blue, drainpipe blood from the lower limbs. The popliteal vein, presented right here in blue, exoften tends from the hip to the knee and also helps drainpipe blood from the reduced extremities.

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Running the complete length of the leg, making it the longest vein in the body, the great saphenous vein is a superficial vein that returns blood from the foot and also superficial muscles of the leg prior to merging via the feethical vein to create the exterior iliac vein.