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It takes 120 trillion cellsto make a humale.

You are watching: Hidden life of the cell viewing guide answers

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They are the basic unitsof life,

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consisting of our brain, muscles,organs - eextremely component of us.

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In the last decade,

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scientists have been able to witnesswhat once appeared difficult -

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the people inside a human cell.

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When I was a student,

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the concept that we can burrow deepinside a living cell was unthinkable.

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Recent advances have actually made itso researchers have the right to watch inside cells

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favor never before.

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We deserve to watch the components of single cellsand how they job-related together.

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The more we learn around thecosmos, the much easier it appears.

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But the cell isn't favor that.

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The more we find out,the even more complex points acquire.

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But these beautiful civilizations are alquickly the front line of the longest war

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in background.

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This is a fight that goes backinto the depths of time,

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to a time once the earthwas dominated by single cellsand also virprovides.

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Eextremely day, our cells challenge theseprimitive virus opponents,

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tiny, ruthmuch less machinesthat kill to reproduce.

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Tbelow is this totality device insidecells that are taking out viruses

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that previously we justdidn't understand was tbelow.

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It is a four-billion-year-oldstruggle that has actually adjusted the course

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of our development.

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This fight of these virusesversus your cells,

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this remarkable, epicscience fiction movie,

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it's going on inside your bodyall the moment,

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and also you don't even recognize it.

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Cells are the basic buildingblocks of living tconcern,

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and the smallest unitsof what provides us human.

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And yet...

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..beneath the surfaceof eextremely one lies a civilization stranger

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than any kind of in science fiction.

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A world in which a billionmicroscopic machines

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all play their component, functioning inconcert with eincredibly second

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of our life.

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Eincredibly one of us in made of 120trillion cells,

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and eextremely one of those cellsis various.

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But they contain the sameinstructions.

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Cells are a little choose babies. Whenthey're born, they all look the same

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yet they adjust incredibly quickly.

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In various nations they learnto soptimal various langueras,

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and our bodies are prefer that- some cells sheight heart,

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and some cells sheight liver.

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The workers of this incrediblehuman being are proteins,

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chains of facility chemicals

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that deserve to lock together totransform right into spectacular devices.

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Others job-related to createremarkable structures,

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prefer the interior skeletonthat holds the cell together.

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These excellent trusses are constantlyadjusting to stresses and strains,

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structure and also rebuilding to givethe cell its shape and stamina.

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Then there are the motor-proteins,haulage employees that use

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the cell's skeleton as highwaysto deliver food, chemicals

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and the necessary structure materialsof life to wherever they are needed.

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They are just one of the astonishingmicro devices that keep

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this bustling community healthy.

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Scientists are asked all the moment,how carry out things in a cell know

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just how to obtain wright here they're supposedto go to carry out their job?

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And for certain cells are extremely chaoticand things are bumping

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right into each other and also mostof that's just random.

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But enough things get wherethey're supposed to go

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that the whole system functions.

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And powering all this activityare the cell's power stations.

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Inside these free-floatingframeworks called mitochondria,

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generators spin at over 1,000 timesper minute...

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..recharging billionsof tiny chemical batteries.

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Everything we execute, eincredibly heartbeat,

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every movement, eextremely assumed,

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is powered by the batteries chargedby these cellular power stations.

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And everything in this worldfunctions to a grasp plan.

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And the setup is protecteddeep in the heart of every cell.

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The nucleus is the vault containingthe instruction hands-on for life.

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DNA.

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DNA is a chain of chemicals,organised into genes.

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Each gene holds the instructionsto develop a specific protein.

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The double helix containsover 20,000 instructions

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that tell our cells what to makeand once,

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how to organise not just our cells,yet our whole bodies.

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The double helix has becomethe icon of the 21st century,

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and also it's pretty exceptional stuff.

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There's six feet of DNA in everycell of the body.

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And if all of those bits were collection outin a directly line,

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they'd reach to the moonand also back thousands of times.

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But this vital chain of chemicalswould be useless

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without an army of microscopicmakers that endlessly travelits length,

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repairing it and also transcribing it,

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turning the DNA right into instructionsthat the cell deserve to understand also.

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Once a gene has been copied,

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the instructions are carriedoutside the nucleus.

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Here, mobile factories read themand also revolve them into proteins.

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Up to two million different kinds,

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each with its very own specific shapeand purpose.

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And little bit goes to wastein the cell.

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Used and faulty proteins are taggedfor recycling...

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..then chewed acomponent by powerfulroving shredders referred to as proteasomes,

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reducing them to tiny buildingblocks for new proteins.

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But each cell is likewise partof a more comprehensive neighbourhood of cells,

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all continually communicatingvia each various other.

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Fragments of shredded proteinsare constantly transportedto the surface.

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Here, they are presentedfor inspection...

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..to be monitored by the guardiansof our body's immune device...

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..our white blood cells.

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These roving soldiers checkthe protein fragments for signs

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of damage or infection.

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And for the moment,every little thing is in order.

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Eincredibly single human cell contains

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this civilization of breathtakingintricacy,

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organised by the nuclearequipments at its heart,

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ceaselessly workingfrom instructionscreated down in our DNA.

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But our cells are underconsistent strike,

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and this cell is around to facean ancient foe...

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..in an encounter that startsthrough an occasion so commonplace...

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..you rarely even alert it.

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Eexceptionally day our bodiesare constantly bombarded

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by these invisible critters,

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bacteria and also virsupplies.But we have our skin,

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it's our first line of defencethat keeps them out.

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But we have actually Achilles heels - we haveopenings to the outside human being,

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our mouths, our noses, we touchthings, we rub our lips,

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we rub our eyes or wipe our nose.They have the right to gain in.

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And once they're in, they're in.

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Inhaled from a sneeze,

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an alien army is being carriedright into our body.

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A million intruders,hellbent on damage.

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This is one of our most commonadversaries - the adenovirus.

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It's a masterpiece of design,

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and also each one has actually a single aim...

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..to breach a cell's defences...

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..and also reach the nucleus.

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Once inside, any type of one of theseviruses have the right to take controlof the cell...

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..and also redevelop 10,000 times over.

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The outcome might be anything,

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from the widespread coldto pneumonia - even death.

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But our bodies are prepared.

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As the viruses technique the cell,

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they are met by a cloudof resistance.

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Antibodies, Y-shaped proteinsthat recognize alien intruders

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patrol the area in between our cells,

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searching for viroffers.

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Recognising the invader, they lockto the virus's armour plating,

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shackling them together,making the viroffers simple meat

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for the white blood cells thatfeed on alien intruders choose these.

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Antibodies and white blood cellsdevelop the front line

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of our immune mechanism.

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The immune systemis absolutely remarkable,

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and it actually progressed to seeinvading microbes

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and get rid of them. But that's jurock part of your body's defences.

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Our DNA encodes all theseother functions that help us

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to fight against virusat eextremely single action.

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Regardless of the body's earlyimmune response...

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..numerous hundreds of virusessurvive to our cell.

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But at the surchallenge,they confront their following obstacle...

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..the cell's membrane, or skin.

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The surchallenge of the cell isan amazingly complex place.

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Tright here are hundreds, maybe thousandsof receptor proteins

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sticking out of the cell and they allhave actually a distinctive function to play.

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A few of them will certainly be justmoving information

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from exterior of the cellinto the cell.

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Other receptors deserve to bringwhole cargoes in.

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The surface of each cellis a living obstacle,

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teeming through defense proteinsthat constantly monitor molecules

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as they enter and also leave.

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Small molecules like water

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and oxygen deserve to sindicate seepthrough the membrane.

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Larger molecules, like sugar,

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are allowed entrythrough specialised pumps.

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But the biggest deliveriescall for a distinct key

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before they are allowedright into the cell.

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These protein secrets are recognisedby groups of mobile sentries

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that continually roam the surface.

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This advanced device isdesigned to keep harmful molecules

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out of the cell.

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But over billions of yearsof evolution,

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the adenovirus has evolvedits incredibly own vital,

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etched into the end of theseprojecting fibres.

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Antibodies still cling tothe some of these fibres,

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blocking many of the counterfeitsecrets - yet not all.

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One by one, sentries all overthe cell's surconfront are fooled.

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And the virus armyquietly slips inside.

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In this prehistoric fight for the cell,it's round two to the virus.

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So, exactly how much ago does it go,this cat and also computer mouse game,

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this battle between cellsand viruses?

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Eexceptionally indication suggestsit goes right back

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to the beginnings of life on Earth.

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Wherever life started, veryearly on there was a divergence,

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2 different strategiesthat life followed.

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One of them wregarding becomeeven more facility, to end up being cells,

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to end up being, ultimately,organisms choose ourselves.

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The other method wregarding remaineasy - to come to be virprovides,

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and to manipulate those cells to theirown ends, to replicate themselves.

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Beneath the surchallenge,

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the cell prepares to receivethe deadly invaders.

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Fooled right into reasoning that the virusis an important nutrient,

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one-of-a-kind proteins slot togetherto develop a spherical mould.

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They pinch out a bubbleof cellular membrane,

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wrapping the virus inside.

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Finally, a sepaprice proteinpinches the bubble free,

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transferring the virusright into the cell's internal.

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Unwittingly, the cellhas actually simply taken a huge step

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towards to its own downloss.

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Eincredibly single memberof this invading virus army

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has the weaponry to ultimatelydamage this cell.

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Its protein shell is a multi-layeredcloak of deception,

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which has still even more surprisesin keep.

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And at its heart, it carriesa tiny string of DNA,

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its ultimate weapon.

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It's a masteritem of evolutionand style.

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And yet scientistsstill can't decide

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if it's actually alive or dead.

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At the level of large animalschoose ourselves,

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the difference between living thingsand also non-living things

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is extremely apparent.

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Come down a level, though, to cells,and also it becomes a bit even more ambiguous.

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For our own cells, of course,you deserve to still tell immediately

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that they are alive. Come downan additional level, though, to the virus,

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and it's no much longer obviously alive.They don't look alive.

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Yet they behave actually perhapsas if they are.

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They behave actually through a feeling of purpose.

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A virus isn't strictly alive,

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it can't make more of itselfon its own.

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It only deserve to replicate if it usescomponents that it hijacks from a cell.

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But the cell still has actually a formidablearray of defences

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to store these killing machinesat bay.

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Eincredibly shipment that the cellreceives is taken

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to a sorting terminal,dubbed an endosome.

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Endosomes procedure incomingsupplies and also decide where

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inside the cellthey will certainly be delivered.

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The first action of the processis to break them dvery own.

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The virus army is aboutto be digested.

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The wall surfaces of the sortingstations are fitted

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through specialised protein pumps.

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The pumps attract in unique atoms,

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turning the inside of the endosomeinto an acid bath.

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The acid breaks down largenutrients into smaller molecules

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that are less complicated for the cellto carry and usage.

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And as the acid eats awayat the virus's external shell,

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it begins to break acomponent.

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This have to spell disasterfor the adenovirus.

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But the acid is partof its escape plan.

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The virus fibres are the firstto break amethod.

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But their disintegrationreleases a distinct protein

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surprise inside the virus...

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..that targets the wallof the sorting terminal...

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..tearing the membrane apartand also setting the virus complimentary.

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But not eincredibly virus escapes.

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Many kind of still bring antibodieslocked to their surconfront.

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Their major project wregarding alertthe immune system to intruders,

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but their firm grip now tiesthe shell together.

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The fibres cannot break free,

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and the escape protein staystrapped inside the shell.

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Countmuch less viroffers are consumed awayprior to they have the right to escape.

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But sufficient are released.

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Now tbelow is nothingin between these viruses

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and the nucleus of the cell -their ultimate goal.

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Yet although they are just fivemicrometres from their taracquire...

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..many might as wellbe a million miles away.

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For 90% of the army,the invasion will certainly end right here,

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floating helplessly beneaththe surconfront.

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Although they are surroundedby the continuous bustleof cellular activity,

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the inert invaders have actually no wayof moving themselves.

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And they have actually no method of utilisingthe energy generated

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by the cells' floatingpower stations...

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..the mitochondria.

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Inside each mitochondrion, thefood we eat and the air we breathe

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drives thousands of generators thatcontinually recharge billions

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of tiny batteries.

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But what is evenmore extraordinary

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is that scientists believethat mitochondria were oncebasic cells themselves.

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Then they one was swallowedby an additional cell,

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firing one of the greatestleaps in evolution -

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complex life.

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To be complicated at all,you need to have all this machinery,

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all these proteins encoded by genes.

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And to assistance every one of that requiresa remarkable amount of power.

0:24:090:24:14

All facility life sharea single widespread ancestor,

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and that ancestor occurred simply oncein four billion years

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of life on Earth.

0:24:210:24:23

For 2 to 3 billion yearsit was bacteria and nothing else,

0:24:230:24:26

and then this complicated cell occurred.

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One easy cell obtained insideanother straightforward cell,

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it's an extremely rare occasion in itself.

0:24:320:24:33

And when this occurred, it transformsthe energetic possibilities of life.

0:24:330:24:37

Without that power,evolution might never before have produced

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the astonishing diversityof life that we watch about us.

0:24:420:24:45

Without that power,we wouldn't see plants and pets,

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we wouldn't view ourselves. The worldwould certainly be an practically sterile desert.

0:24:490:24:54

Throughout each cell, hundredsof mitochondria feed energy to power

0:25:080:25:12

the netjob-related of protein that make usthe complex creatures that we are.

0:25:120:25:16

The virus has evolvedinto a model of performance.

0:25:230:25:27

But the simplicity of its designmakes it useless

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without the machineryof facility life.

0:25:300:25:32

But simply beneath the surconfront,large numbers of motor proteins,

0:25:350:25:40

molecular haulage employees,

0:25:400:25:42

await nutrients processedfor distribution by the endosomes.

0:25:420:25:46

And in this billion-yeararms race...

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..the virus has evolvedthe exact mechanism

0:26:060:26:09

to connect to the cell'smotor proteins.

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Now it can usage the energyof the mitochondria.

0:26:230:26:26

The virus is on its way.

0:26:310:26:33

It has actually hijacked the cell'svery own transport system,

0:26:390:26:42

and is being lugged towardsthe nucleus and its ultimate prize,

0:26:420:26:46

the DNA equipments it needsto take regulate of the cell.

0:26:460:26:50

These microscopic motorised legsare a wonder of the natural world.

0:26:580:27:04

Slowed dvery own to one-thirtiethof their normal rate,

0:27:040:27:07

their movement is clearly visible.

0:27:070:27:10

But at their actual rate,over 100 actions a second,

0:27:100:27:14

they would appear a blur.

0:27:140:27:15

But rate isn't every little thing.

0:27:290:27:32

Cells are densely packed,

0:27:320:27:35

and also their internal highwaysare littered via obstacles.

0:27:350:27:38

And these motor proteinscan just relocate in one direction.

0:27:410:27:45

For this virus, it seemsto be the finish of the road.

0:28:050:28:08

But researchers have actually recentlyfound the virus locks on

0:28:160:28:20

to a 2nd motor protein.

0:28:200:28:22

And this one is constructed to movein the oppowebsite direction.

0:28:320:28:36

Together, the 2 motor proteinsdeserve to navigate

0:28:520:28:55

about nearly any kind of obstacles.

0:28:550:28:57

And as soon as aget,the invader benefits.

0:29:010:29:04

The virus is on the relocate again.

0:29:220:29:25

And it leads an army of hundreds.

0:29:300:29:33

It's been practically an hour since theadenovirus initially struck the cell.

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The nucleus is justan additional hour ameans.

0:30:060:30:09

Until newly, scientists thoughtthat once the viral army

0:30:110:30:15

was on the march,nothing can sheight it.

0:30:150:30:18

But then they found that the cellhas its very own inner immune mechanism.

0:30:180:30:23

Tright here is this totality device insidecells that are taking out viruses

0:30:250:30:29

that formerly we justdidn't know was tbelow.

0:30:290:30:31

And I remember the daywe publimelted the paper around it,

0:30:310:30:34

I woke as much as hear it being announcedon the national radio

0:30:340:30:37

and then got in a shopto pick up the newspapers

0:30:370:30:40

to find it was on the front web page.

0:30:400:30:42

Dotted alengthy the cell'shighmeans device,

0:31:180:31:21

a unique protein searchesfor anything carrying antibodies

0:31:210:31:25

from the surchallenge.

0:31:250:31:27

The clever before thing around thisprotein is it uses systems

0:31:270:31:30

that the cell already has in location.

0:31:300:31:33

Once it's stuck to the antibody,

0:31:330:31:35

it sends out signals to a cellularmachine called the proteasome.

0:31:350:31:38

And the proteasome plays the roleof recycling proteins in the cell.

0:31:380:31:42

It gets carried alengthy to the virusand also it destroys the virus,

0:31:420:31:45

breaking dvery own all its partsinto tiny pieces.

0:31:450:31:49

Once attached, the defence proteininitiates a chain reactivity,

0:31:490:31:54

attracting specialisedtagging proteins.

0:31:540:31:56

With Each Other, they note the virusfor destruction.

0:31:580:32:01

Then it's just a issue of time...

0:32:110:32:13

..before the recyclers arrive.

0:32:160:32:19

They rip the virus to shreds.

0:32:270:32:30

Somewhere inside your body,this battle is raging ideal currently.

0:33:010:33:06

The exploration of TRIM21provides perhaps new ways

0:33:150:33:18

of making therapeuticsto fight virsupplies,

0:33:180:33:21

and one method this can work is if wediscover methods of encouraging the immunedevice to make even more TRIM21.

0:33:210:33:26

So as soon as that virus entersright into the cell, the TRIM21 is ready

0:33:260:33:30

to recognise the antibodiesand also damage the virus.

0:33:300:33:33

By working together, the defenceproteins and also recycling shredders

0:33:430:33:48

deserve to destroy an army of virusesin just a couple of hrs.

0:33:480:33:51

But it only takes a single virusto take regulate of a whole cell...

0:34:110:34:17

..spreading infectionthroughout the body.

0:34:180:34:21

With no antibodies attached,

0:34:240:34:26

this virus has actually evadedthe cell's shredders.

0:34:260:34:29

Nopoint now stands between itand its targain.

0:34:390:34:43

The virus is currently just one thousandthof a millimetre from the nucleus.

0:34:560:35:01

But if it is to achieve its ultimategoal, it initially hregarding get inside.

0:35:050:35:10

Compared to the cell,the virus is tiny.

0:35:130:35:16

But really they're simply differentversions of the very same machine,

0:35:160:35:20

and its just project is to copy itself.

0:35:200:35:22

But the virus demands to takebenefit of our cell mechanism

0:35:220:35:26

for its very own selfish ends.

0:35:260:35:27

At the heart of eextremely celllies the nucleus,

0:35:310:35:35

and it is a people all of its own.

0:35:350:35:37

Its surchallenge is made of the samemolecules as the cell membrane.

0:35:430:35:46

But entry into this worldis governed by completelyvarious gatemeans.

0:35:480:35:52

Across the surchallenge,

0:35:550:35:57

protein arms search for moleculesto draw inside nuclear pores.

0:35:570:36:01

Thstormy these gatemeans,billions of chemical messages

0:36:060:36:09

and instructions pass betweenthe DNA and the cell.

0:36:090:36:12

But only if they are recognisedby the protein arms.

0:36:150:36:18

But once aobtain, the viral shellcarries a counterfeit pass.

0:36:250:36:29

The arms lock on, however the virus isalso big to be ferried inside.

0:36:340:36:38

Thinking that they have hitan obstruction...

0:36:440:36:47

..the motor proteins shuntthe virus right into reverse.

0:36:490:36:52

Pulled in two directions...

0:37:160:37:18

..the virus is ripped apart.

0:37:230:37:25

But what looks prefer a catastrophefor the virus is, in reality,its masterstroke.

0:37:330:37:39

Now the single strand of DNA it heldinside is brought via the pore,

0:37:580:38:04

and right into the cell's regulate centre.

0:38:040:38:07

Inside the huguy cell nucleustright here are around 23,000 genes.

0:38:270:38:31

They code for thousands and also thousandsof biochemical pathmeans.

0:38:310:38:35

The virus has just acquired 40,

0:38:350:38:38

yet via those 40it can execute impressive points.

0:38:380:38:40

It's so tiny, just a piece of DNA,

0:38:420:38:45

a couple of proteins to makeits shell, and yet it have the right to take over

0:38:450:38:49

and also wreak havoc in a hugehuguy cell.

0:38:490:38:53

It's brilliant.

0:38:530:38:54

The adenovirus has actually prcooktop itselfa grasp of deception...

0:39:060:39:09

..continually exploiting the cell'sprocesses to better its owndeadly aims.

0:39:110:39:16

But its best trickis yet to come.

0:39:170:39:20

The cell's DNA makers haveno method of informing the difference

0:39:270:39:30

between its very own DNAand the DNA of the virus.

0:39:300:39:34

Blindly, they set aboutconverting its deadly code

0:39:370:39:40

into countless instructionsfor the cell to act upon...

0:39:400:39:44

..blueprints for the cell'sown destruction.

0:39:530:39:56

But the machines that turnthe blueprints into proteins

0:40:260:40:30

lie exterior the nucleus.

0:40:300:40:32

Out in the main body of the cell,the instructions are met

0:40:360:40:40

by a squadron of mobile proteinfactories, dubbed ribosomes.

0:40:400:40:44

The ribosomes exactly followthe instruction

0:40:470:40:50

and also begin to constructviral proteins.

0:40:500:40:52

Each is carefully foldedinto a particular shape,

0:40:530:40:56

through a unique job to carry out.

0:40:560:40:58

These big cellular makers,ribosomes, are absolutely fundamental

0:40:580:41:02

to life, and also exceptionally similar formsof them are found in every type

0:41:020:41:05

of living cell on the world.

0:41:050:41:07

They check out the genetic informationand they decode it,

0:41:070:41:10

bringing in the building blocksthat consist of proteins

0:41:100:41:12

and also sticking them together to makethese sensible molecules

0:41:120:41:15

that are going to workinside the living cell.

0:41:150:41:18

Only these practical molecules

0:41:270:41:30

are the kit of parts neededto develop an foe army.

0:41:300:41:33

But the army will notbe developed out below.

0:41:550:41:57

The raw material for the new armyis attracted ago inside the nucleus...

0:42:080:42:13

..all set for building and construction.

0:42:160:42:18

With its mission reachingits climax,

0:42:330:42:35

the virus transforms its attentionto the cell's DNA,

0:42:350:42:38

halting any kind of process it doesn't require.

0:42:380:42:41

The virus has takencomplete regulate.

0:42:450:42:48

And yet the cell still hasa small home window of possibility.

0:42:550:42:58

Before all normal task stops,

0:43:010:43:04

it has simply enough time to senda message to the exterior world.

0:43:040:43:08

This parcel has fragmentsof the viral army.

0:43:270:43:30

The parcel mergesthrough the cell membrane,

0:43:360:43:39

and also the enemy fragmentsare pumelted to the surface,

0:43:390:43:42

flags warning of the invasionthat has taken area.

0:43:420:43:46

If patrolling white blood cellsspot the ditension signal...

0:43:500:43:53

..they will ruin the cell, alongwith the entire alien army inside.

0:43:550:44:00

If not, the infection willspreview from cell to cell, to cell.

0:44:000:44:07

After simply someday of occupation,

0:44:160:44:19

the virus has finish controlover the cell.

0:44:190:44:22

With program maintenance halted,the cell has began to degeneration.

0:44:230:44:27

And all activity is currently focusedon structure the brand also new viral army

0:44:280:44:34

inside the nucleus.

0:44:340:44:36

The brand-new army self-assembles.

0:44:450:44:47

How carry out viroffers know how toattack our cells, exactly how to break

0:44:510:44:55

and also enter the nucleus itself?

0:44:550:44:57

We understand that viroffers and also cellsco-progressed together over long periodsof time, yet it's even more than that.

0:44:570:45:03

We're actually surprisinglycarefully related.

0:45:030:45:06

It turns out that the virusesthat attack us

0:45:060:45:09

are actually made from bitsand also pieces of our very own cells.

0:45:090:45:12

As our cells were evolving,

0:45:120:45:14

as our nucleus itself was firstcoming to be,

0:45:140:45:17

so these viruses were cobbledtogether from bits and also pieces,

0:45:170:45:20

and also they deserve to attack our nucleus

0:45:200:45:22

bereason they're madeof the same stuff.

0:45:220:45:24

Already developed into its surfaceare the binding sites

0:45:260:45:29

for the cell's motorised legs.

0:45:290:45:31

Fibres snap right into place,

0:45:360:45:38

arming each virus via the keysto enter other cells.

0:45:380:45:42

But these shells are harmlesswithout its instructions.

0:45:460:45:50

The final component is loaded -identical copies

0:46:040:46:08

of the virus's deadly DNA.

0:46:080:46:10

Carried by powerful motors,

0:46:150:46:18

long strands of DNA are fedright into eextremely single virus.

0:46:180:46:22

All this is the resultof one single virus

0:46:410:46:46

obtaining via our cell's defences.

0:46:460:46:48

It's been 2 daysgiven that the virus gone into the body,

0:46:550:46:59

and also the nucleus, when the centreof cellular organisation,

0:46:590:47:03

now harbours an army of10,000 deadly viroffers.

0:47:030:47:06

But prior to it canstart its conquest,

0:47:200:47:22

it has to conquer 2 obstacles.

0:47:220:47:24

The army is trapped insidethe challenging nuclear membrane,

0:47:260:47:29

held at the centreof the cell itself.

0:47:290:47:32

And then tbelow is the skinof the cell itself.

0:47:340:47:37

The protein factories outsidethe nucleus are instructed

0:47:400:47:43

to construct viral saboteurs.

0:47:430:47:45

The initially are releasedinto the decaying cell

0:47:550:47:57

and also target its cytoskeleton.

0:47:570:47:59

The effects are cataclysmic.

0:48:050:48:07

Without assistance...

0:48:110:48:14

the cell starts to collapse.

0:48:140:48:16

Now the virus transforms its attentionto the nuclear membrane.

0:48:230:48:28

A second protein is released.

0:48:340:48:36

Called the Adenovirus Death Protein,it burrows right into the membrane...

0:48:400:48:44

..and also weakens it.

0:48:460:48:48

The nucleus deserve to no longer containthe bulging army.

0:49:010:49:05

Beyond the nucleus,the cell is a wasteland...

0:49:300:49:34

..unrecognisable fromthe harmonious, buzzing community

0:49:410:49:46

of just 48 hrs earlier.

0:49:460:49:47

The cell is now completely helplessto sheight the virus army

0:49:550:50:00

from flooding intobordering tissue...

0:50:000:50:02

..attacking neighbouring cells

0:50:060:50:10

and spreading infectionthroughout the body.

0:50:100:50:13

The battle for this cell is over.

0:50:200:50:24

But the battle has just simply started.

0:50:380:50:41

While the virus has actually been busyinside the cell,

0:50:560:50:59

our antibodies have adaptedand currently come ago in force,

0:50:590:51:02

delivering new receptors, tailor-madeto lock onto the escaping army.

0:51:020:51:07

Yet also in these numbers,they cannot speak eexceptionally virus.

0:51:090:51:14

But they are not alone.

0:51:170:51:19

The cell's dying message tothe outside human being was not in vain.

0:51:200:51:24

Giant white blood cells flockto the stricken cell

0:51:240:51:28

to devour the escaping hordes.

0:51:280:51:31

They too are finding out exactly how to tacklethis specific invader.

0:51:310:51:35

Once the virus has been detectedby the immune mechanism,

0:51:350:51:38

there's a heightened levelof defense inside your body,

0:51:380:51:41

and one of the results of this isthat the cells that make antibodies,

0:51:410:51:44

and also make the ideal antibodyfor that virus,

0:51:440:51:46

will certainly make several copiesof themselves,

0:51:460:51:48

and then they will certainly begin pumping outas much as 5,000 antibodies per second

0:51:480:51:52

to flood your bloodstream,the spaces in between your cells,

0:51:520:51:55

so as the viroffers emergefrom dying cells,

0:51:550:51:57

they can obtain tagged by antibodies,then ruined by white blood cells.

0:51:570:52:01

Taking no possibilities,

0:52:020:52:04

white blood cells engulf nearbycells that might have been infected.

0:52:040:52:08

On the other hand, neighboring healthy cellsmake the ultimate sacrifice,

0:52:130:52:18

damaging themselves to stopthe spread of the virus.

0:52:180:52:22

It is just at this stagethat we become mindful of the battle

0:52:250:52:29

occurring inside us.

0:52:290:52:31

Increasing blood circulation bringsmore white blood cellsto the battleground,

0:52:310:52:35

leading to our nasal tissueto end up being inflamed.

0:52:350:52:38

What we feel is a blocked nose is,in fact, the clearest sign

0:52:380:52:42

of a viral onslaught.

0:52:420:52:44

Once you've had actually an infection,

0:52:460:52:47

one cell, that provides the antibodyfor that infection, will be kept

0:52:470:52:51

inside your bone marrowfor the rest of your life.

0:52:510:52:53

So that if you ever before get anotherinfection with the very same virus,

0:52:530:52:56

the immune mechanism currently knowpresent to respond,

0:52:560:52:58

it knows what antibody to makeand it can respond incredibly quicklyand stop you acquiring sick.

0:52:580:53:03

Working together, the body's immunemechanism ultimately prevents

0:53:060:53:10

the viral infection from spanalysis.

0:53:100:53:12

It's one more battlein an unending war.

0:53:130:53:16

The battle between virusesand also ourselves is advancement,

0:53:190:53:23

yet it's co-evolution -both sides need to change.

0:53:230:53:27

It's a little favor an arms race -one party gets better weapons,

0:53:270:53:31

the various other party hregarding enhance them.

0:53:310:53:33

Even though the individual cellsare fighting this epic battle

0:53:360:53:40

against viruses, remember,you have trillions of cells.

0:53:400:53:43

And so also if one cell losesits war, the majority of of the time theorganism wins and we get better.

0:53:430:53:49

The battle is over.

0:54:030:54:05

For now.

0:54:070:54:09

Although many type of cells have actually been shed,

0:54:170:54:20

tright here are many even more healthy and balanced cellswaiting to rearea them.

0:54:200:54:23

And at the heart of each one liesan the same copy of our DNA.

0:54:310:54:35

Inherited from our parents,

0:54:410:54:42

and their parentsover numerous generations,

0:54:420:54:45

our DNA connects us to a household treethat stretches back

0:54:450:54:50

over three billion years,to the exceptionally first cell...

0:54:500:54:53

..a cell that existed lengthy beforehuman beings, long prior to mammals,

0:54:550:55:00

long prior to the dinosaurs.

See more: What Differentiates The Isotopes Of An Element Differ? What Differentiates The Isotopes Of An Element

0:55:000:55:01

It's a family tree that connects usto every living creatureand plant on Planet.