a2nd Neurosurgical procedure Clinic, “Prof. Dr. N. Oblu” Emergency Clinical Hospital, Iasi, RomaniabDepartment of Neurosurgery, “Grigore. T. Popa” University of Medicine and also Pharmacy, Iasi, RomaniacDepartment of Medicine, “San Giovanni di Dio” Hospital, Gorizia, ItalydDepartment of Fopower Languperiods, Literature, Education and Communication, College of Udine, Udine, ItalyeDepartment of Ophthalmology, “Grigore. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
Andrei Ionut Cucu, PhD
second Neurosurgical treatment Clinic
“Prof. Dr. N. Oblu” Emergency Clinical Hospital
RO–2 Ateneului Street, 700309 Iasi (Romania)
King of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty and also sovepower of the overseas Spanish Empire, Charles II of Spain, was physically disabled, disfigured, mentally retarded, and also he showed impotent. He is recognized in history as El Hechizacarry out (the Bewitched) bereason both him and the human being believed that his psychological and also physical incapacity were due to a “witchcraft act.” Although numerous authors speculated about various conditions, most of them hereditary such as pituitary hormone deficiency, distal renal tubular acidosis, Klinefelter syndrome, vulnerable X syndrome, or male XX hermaphroditism, the hypothesis of hydrocephalus was not taken right into account. We don’t have clear elements to hypothedimension a details etiology of Charles II’ hydrocephalus; but, we think the herpetic infection he endured of after his birth should not be ignored.
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Charles II of Spain, Carlos Segundo (1661–1700; Fig. 1) was the last king of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty and soveregime of the abroad Spanish Realm, from Mexico up to Philippine. Charles was the just making it through son of his predecessor, Philip IV and his second wife, Mariana of Austria. His birth was awaited via enthusiasm by the Spanish civilization, that were afraid of the problem that would have actually broken out if Philip IV had passed away without any kind of male heirs.
Charles II of Spain, Juan Carreño de Miranda (circa 1685), Museum of Art History, Vienna (a). King Charles II, Claudio Coello (1675–1680), The Prado Museum, Madrid (b). Portrait of Charles V, Bernard van Orley (circa 1515–1516), Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest (c) (public domain).
La Gaceta de Madrid spcheck out the word of his birth, describing the crown prince as “a robust male, exceptionally handsome...a proportionate head, black hair...”. Interestingly, not long after, a report sent to the French King Louis XIV described a completely various situation: “the prince seems incredibly weak, he has a herpetic on both cheeks. The head is extended through scabs, a sort of channel or drainage that oozes underneath the right ear <1, 2>.
The king was physically disabled, disfigured, mentally retarded, and he verified impotent, because no children were born from his 2 marriages <3>. In addition, throughout his life, he has been suffering from a variety of various diseases <4-6>, and he did not sheight till the age of 4 or walk till the age of 8–10 <1, 7>. Aged 6–10 years, he had actually measles, varicella, rubella, and smallpox <2>. He was treated prefer a baby till the age of 10 and also fearing that this fragile son shall be overworked, he was left totally uneducated <7>. Due to his incapacity, the years of the power of Charles II were years of agony for Spain; his mother was regent the majority of of his power.
As pointed out above, the king was not only mentally retarded but also physically disabled and disfigured by a mandibular prognathism, problem inherited from the Habsburg family (a severe example of the so-called Habsburg jaw), which had actually been noticed in his forefather, Charles V, that had the very same influential jaw (Fig. 1). The mandible of Charles II was so badly dedeveloped that he can badepend soptimal or chew, and also hence he had to swallow his food nearly completely, which often led to him indigestions and vomiting (Fig. 1) <8>.
He is known in background as El Hechizacarry out (the Bewitched). Both him and also the people he ruled believed that his mental and physical incapacity were due to a “witchcraft act” <7>. Nevertheless, additionally researches proved that the solid preference for endogamy within the Spanish branch of the Habsburg imperial family brought about its segregation toward the neighbor neighborhoods and also the emergence of consanguinity <3, 9>.
From the earliest years of life, Charles II was exorcised in the attempt to heal him, and all the exorcists from the kingdom were summoned in order to question the demons they provided to expel <7>. In addition, St. Isidore’s and also St. Iago’s relics were carried in the royal palace, wright here they have actually stayed for 6 months, in the hope that the King should be healed <10>. He partly respanned from this condition, yet he continued to be in a state of mental imbecility <10>, melancholy, and lethargy till the finish of his life <7>: “his mind, too, was a consistent prey to a corroding melancholy, which appears to have actually been in a good measure developed by the many ignoble and also womanish /superstitions” <10>.
Furthermore, he suffered from increasing seizures in the last years of his life <2, 3>. The American historians Will and also Ariel Durant described Charles II as “brief, lame, epileptic, senile, and also totally bald before 35, he was always on the verge of fatality, however repeatedly baffled Christendom by proceeding to live” <11>. Toward the end of his life, the frail health and wellness of Charles started deteriorating even even more, causing his death at the age of 38, in Madrid.
As for the condition of Charles II, it had yet to be established. Still, numerous authors speculated about various diseases, many of them, genetic, such as: pituitary hormone deficiency and distal renal tubular acidosis <3>, Klinefelter syndrome <4>, delicate X syndrome <12>, or male XX hermaphroditism associated via a fragile X syndrome <1>. Whatever before his underlying condition, we indicate that Charles’ symptoms and also signs, such as macrocephaly, late development, and also mental advancement, and also the constant episodes of vomiting and also epileptic crisis from his childhood were related to hydrocephalus.
Our hypothesis is corroborated by the post-mortem examination, which concluded that the emperor’s corpse “did not contain a solitary drop of blood; his heart was the dimension of peppercorn; his lungs corroded; his intestines rotten and gangrenous; he had a solitary testicle, black as coal, and also his head was complete of water” <4>. The necropsy noticed that the ventricles of the brain were filled via cerebrospinal liquid, as in hydrocephalus <4, 13>. We don’t have clear elements to hypothedimension a certain etiology of Charles II’ hydrocephalus; however, we think the herpetic infection he suffered of after his birth, should not be ignored, also more as herpetic infections can cause hydrocephalus <14, 15>.
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The authors have actually no problem or interests. The authors are not having any kind of financial interemainder.