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Key People:PericlesSolonAung San Suu KyiCleisthenes of AthensEphialtes...(Sexactly how more)Related Topics:DemocratizationDirect democracyDeliberative democracyE-democracyConsociationalism...(Sexactly how more)

Democracy is a system of government in which regulations, plans, management, and also major undertakings of a state or various other polity are directly or indirectly chose by the “world,” a group historically comprised by just a minority of the population (e.g., all totally free adult males in ancient Athens or all sufficiently propertied adult males in 19th-century Britain) however primarily taken considering that the mid-20th century to include all (or almost all) adult citizens.


Studies of contemporary nonliterate tribal cultures and also other proof imply that democracy, broadly speaking, was exercised within people of hunter-gatherers in prehistoric times. The shift to settled agricultural communities caused inecharacteristics of wealth and power between and within communities and ordered nondemocratic develops of social company. Thousands of years later, in the sixth century BCE, a fairly democratic develop of federal government was presented in the city-state of Athens by Cleisthenes.


How is democracy much better than various other creates of government?

States with autonomous governments proccasion dominance by autocrats, guarantee standard individual rights, allow for a relatively high level of political etop quality, and also seldom make battle on each various other. As compared through nondemocratic states, they also better foster huguy advance as measured by signs such as health and education and learning, administer more prosperity for their citizens, and also ensure a more comprehensive array of individual freedoms.


Why does democracy need education?

The hallmark of democracy is that it permits citizens to take part in making laws and public plans by frequently selecting their leaders and also by voting in assemblies or referenda. If their participation is to be meaningful and effective—if the democracy is to be genuine and also not a sham—citizens should understand their very own interests, recognize the relevant facts, and also have the ability to critically evaluate political arguments. Each of those points presupposes education.


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Democracy, literally, dominance by the people. The term is acquired from the Greek dēmokratia, which was coined from dēmos (“people”) and kratos (“rule”) in the middle of the fifth century bce to represent the political devices then existing in some Greek city-says, notably Athens.

Fundapsychological questions


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Kcurrently about democracy, its history, and advantage over various other forms of government
Questions and answers around democracy.

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The etymological beginnings of the term democracy hint at a number of urgent difficulties that go far past semantic problems. If a government of or by the people—a “popular” government—is to be establimelted, at leastern five standard concerns have to be challenged at the outcollection, and two even more are nearly particular to be posed if the democracy proceeds to exist for lengthy.

(1) What is the correct unit or association within which a democratic federal government have to be established? A tvery own or city? A country? A business corporation? A university? An global organization? All of these?

(2) Given an proper association—a city, for example—who among its members should reap complete citizenship? Which persons, in various other words, need to constitute the dēmos? Is every member of the association entitbrought about take part in governing it? Assuming that children should not be permitted to get involved (as a lot of adults would certainly agree), have to the dēmos encompass all adults? If it has just a subcollection of the adult populace, exactly how tiny have the right to the subcollection be prior to the association ceases to be a democracy and becomes something else, such as an aristocracy (government by the ideal, aristos) or an oligarchy (federal government by the few, oligos)?


(3) Assuming a appropriate association and also a appropriate dēmos, how are citizens to govern? What political institutions or organizations will they need? Will these institutions differ between different kinds of associations—for instance, a little tvery own and also a huge country?

(4) When citizens are split on an problem, as they regularly will be, whose views must prevail, and also in what circumstances? Should a majority constantly prevail, or must minorities sometimes be empowered to block or get rid of majority rule?

(5) If a majority is ordinarily to prevail, what is to constitute a appropriate majority? A majority of all citizens? A majority of voters? Should a appropriate majority consist of not individual citizens however specific groups or associations of citizens, such as hereditary teams or territorial associations?

(6) The preceding concerns premean an adequate answer to a 6th and also more vital question: Why should “the people” rule? Is democracy really better than aristocracy or monarchy? Perhaps, as Plato argues in the Republic, the ideal federal government would certainly be led by a minority of the a lot of highly qualified persons—an aristocracy of “philosopher-emperors.” What factors might be offered to display that Plato’s check out is wrong?

(7) No association can preserve a democratic government for exceptionally lengthy if a bulk of the dēmos—or a majority of the government—thought that some various other form of federal government were much better. Thus, a minimum condition for the continued visibility of a democracy is that a considerable proportion of both the dēmos and also the management believes that popular federal government is better than any kind of feasible alternate. What conditions, in enhancement to this one, favour the ongoing visibility of democracy? What conditions are harmful to it? Why have some democracies managed to endure, also through durations of significant crisis, while so many type of others have actually collapsed?