1. Early humans were pastdental wanderers until they settled down and also developedfarming, which has been the base of economic situation ever since.

You are watching: Creation expansion and interaction of economic systems

2. Trade and commerce throughout background was focused approximately the four main trade routes: The Silk Roadway, Trans-Saharan, Mediterranean, and also the Indian Ocean.

3. Spread of technology spurs inter-neighborhood interactivity and also interaction, and also advances in technology increase manufacturing and facilitate profession.

4. In financial systems, peasants develop food and also develop excess, and also as soon as excess is current, specialization occurs. Artisans develop deluxe items, and vendors profession these commodities to carry items to the elites. Without a surplus, financial (commercial) advance is near impossible.

EX: Middle ages Europe

5. Exploration in the Early Modern Period fueled the principle of capitalism, and also promoted swarms which sustained and also gave riches to home countries.

Unit 1:

Paleolithic Period:Period of foragers.

Hunting and gathering societies: Only pursued and gathered for food. No source of economic climate.

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Neolithic Revolution: Agrisociety developed new communities.Move towards domestication of plants, and also pets. Then civilization discovered that they might usage pets for even more than farming (second commodities revolution), which caused human being to make and trade even more assets with other civilizations and also the nomadic people in the area, and also additionally produced a brand-new lifemethod, pastoralism.

Bronze Age: Bronze devices were produced. CONSEQUENCE: Tools made farming less complicated, so human being were able to specialize in various other work, which permitted people to trade more.

Early River Valley Civilizations:

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Egypt:

Hieroglyphics: Form of creating in Egypt that helped document trade.

Nile: Made take a trip simple.

Egypt and Nubia: travelled and traded alengthy the Nile by boats

Traded via Mesopotamia.

Sumer:

Cuneiform: Form of composing in Sumer that helped record profession.

Tigris Euphrates River

Flooded a lot, no natural Irrigation, and was not as navigable as the Nile.

Invented the wheel

CONSEQUENCE: Led to many kind of new creations that assisted in farming, which aided facilitate profession. For example the plow made farming much faster, so people might develop even more.

Silver was the develop of money.

Traded with Egypt and the Indus River Valley.

Chavin:

Andes Mountains

CONTRAST: Only river valley world that was not by a river, which impacted its contacts.

Grew and traded beans and potatoes.

Harappa/Mohenjo Daro:

Indus River

Agriculture based upon cotton, rye, wwarmth, peas, and also rice.

Traded through Mesopotamia

Large granaries where grain was regulated for manufacturing and also sale.

Aryans: Nomadic world through whom Mohenjo Daro traded.

Shang:

Yellow River/Haung He River

Traded through India and also the Center East

Trade ceramic, millet, and also soybeans

Olmecs:

Gulf of Mexico

Grew and traded maize and also beans.

Phoenicians:

Mediterranean

Introduced coin money and the phonetic alphabet.

Unit 2:

CONTINUITY: Road systems enhanced, and also stirrups for steeds (learned from pastoralists) and the use of camels in Africa included to transportation in the period yet tright here are no developments in transport methods. Also exact same farming methods.

Feudal Alliance System: A device between landlords and also serfs. Serfs offered labor for protection from the Serfs.invasion.

Trade Routes of the Classical Period:

· Silk Road

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· Trans-Saharan

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· Mediterranean

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· Indian Ocean

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China

Zhou: (Zhou is Early River Valley period)

Rice in the south: Rice gave in a lot and also could feed many type of world.

Wheat in the north

CONSEQUENCE: Encouraged populace growth

Feudal System

Qin:

Standardized coinage and weights and actions (every one of which facilitated trade)

New irrigation jobs funded by government

Taxes- resulted in downfall bereason world did not prefer taxes.

Manufacturing promoted particularly in silk manufacturing

Han:

The Silk Roadway

· Travelled in segments and caravans· Traded silk for equines and skins with nomadic people

Extensive inner trade

New centers of exchange emerge

State monopolies in salt, iron, and wine- only the state was allowed to create it.

Regulated farming offers.

CHANGE: New Technology

Iron mining

Water-powered

Paper

Rome

Controlled Mediterranean

Traded through India and China

Traded animal skins, precious metals, exotic Afrihave the right to animals

Tax, tribute, spoils, commerce

Teotihuacan/Maya: Co-exsited together

Teotihuacan: Thriving market center

Maya:

Grew maize, cotton, and cocoa

Fell due to climate readjust.

Drained swamps, terraced hillsides, flattened ridge tops, created water management mechanism.

CONSEQUENCE: Flourimelted agriculture, which caused a promptly growing populace (which can not be sustained once climate readjust hit).

Persia

Traded with central and also eastern Asia, and the Mediterranean

Darius: Establimelted Persian Realm. Worked to centralize taxes and also created roads.

CONSEQUENCE: Roads assisted connect to main and also eastern Asia.

Cutting edge in Iron Technology

Greece

Exported olive oil and grapes/wine.

Located in the Mediterranean, and also traded in the Mediterranean.

Hellenistic Period:Influence of Hellenes

CONSEQUENCE: Trade flourished

India:

Mauryan/Gupta Empire

Monsoons: Seasonal storms that assisted farming.

CONSEQUENCE: More plants to trade

Taxation device

Traded steel.

Traded with Mediterranean, Middle East, and also East Asia.

Unit 1: ID TERMS

Paleolithic Period

Hunting and also Gathering societies

Neolithic Period

Neolithic Revolution

Secondary commodities revolution

Nomads

Bronze age

Specialization

Hieroglyphics

Indus river valley people

Harappa/Mohenjo Daro

Aryans

Haung He/ Yellow River Civilization

Phoenicians

Olmecs/Teotihuacan

Chavin/Moche

Pastoralists

Unit 2: ID TERMS

Zhou dynasty

Feudal alliance system

Qin Dynasty

Monsoon

Mauryan Empire

Aryans

Darius

Royal Road

Silk Road

Mayan Empire

Teotihuacan

Unit 3

Islamic Empire

BedouinUmayyadAbbasidSouth(India) and SoutheastAsiaAfrica - North, South, East, Sub-Saharan

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Mecca and also Medina on the Red Sea.

Bedouins-Nomadic herders on the ArabianPeninsula. Based on camel and goat herding. Trade cities in south ruined by Bedouins, brand-new cities create on the north shore on the Red Sea.MeccaandMedina- 2 trade cities established by the Umayyad clan of the Bedouins. Th cities were close to oasis" and also had actually sedentary agriculture. They affix the Arab Peninsula to thetranscontinentaltrade paths from theMediterranean. Both hadlong-distance camel caravan profession, and profession via Bedouins, that protect profession routes. TheKa"ba(sacred mosque) in Capital brings wealth-bearing pilgrims.CAUSE/CONSEQUENCEDue to the Ka"ba"s spiritual worth and also mandatory clan truce, groups of human being banded together and also sellers flocked to the trade cities, resulting in profession increase and also a vendor elite, as viewed inbazaars.

CONSIDER THIS: MUHAMMADVERTISEMENT, THE LEADER OF ISLAM, WAS A TRADER - MAKING IT SEEM TO BE A MORE ACCEPTABLE AND BENEFICIAL TO BE ONE.

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The degree of the Islamic Empire under the Umayyad Caliphate

Umayyad Caliphate-The Umayyad Dynasty goes from650-750 CE.

They were even more concentrated on armed forces growth than trade systems.Expanded the Islamic Caliphate into Spain, North Africa, and the Sassanid EmpireConnect toMediterranean, Trans-SaharanandSilk Roadprofession paths.CHANGE: Silk road have the right to now be crossed all at once (this is a change better attributed to the Abbasid period), not just in short trips between on-road profession cities.WHY? New innovation - camels, caravanserai.Sets up trade territory for Abbasid Caliphate.Capital at formerly Byzantine city -Damascus.

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The Abbasid caliphate had actually extensive profession routes.

Abbasid Caliphate-The Abbasid Dynasty ruled from750 - 1258 CE.

Take over area of Umayyad conquests.Connected toSilk Roadway, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean,andTrans-Saharantrade courses. (Revive Afro-Eurasian trade)Trade and also commercial based empire, not conquest.Move capital: Trading facility ofBaghdadin Iraq.Tax system - heavier on Non- Muslims (Malawis)Merchant elite course.Wazirs build infrastructure to collecttribute.

Trade (CAUSE):Elites desire international of high-end products, and merchants look for to make a profit by bringing items to markets.

Reinvest earnings right into profession ventures = even more economic profit.

As Caliphs, such as Harun al-Rashid, the fourth caliph, started to live moreluxuriouslifelayouts, in encouraged even more trade and also purchase of high-end products.

Government-runartisan workshopsto produce products to profession (deluxe + necessities)Furniture, carpets, glassware, jewelry, tapestries)Artisans develop organizations equivalent toguilds.Unskilled labor (farming, serving elites) left toservants.Ayanlandlord elites.

Facilitation of Trade:

DhowsArab sailing vessels with lateenager sails and also shallow hulls (quick transport). Carry great for profession in Indian Ocean,Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, etc.Travel via and also against the seasonal winds, which enabled traders to leave and also return year round.Lateen Sails- Allow ships to travel quick, and upwind.Scientific Advances (Compass, astrolabe) - Help navigation.Camels- "Super" or Hybrid camels for overland also profession - sturdier, worecamel saddles.Caravanserai- Government sponsored rest stops along trade courses (Shelter, food)Joint profession GroupsMuslims, Christians, and also Jews band also together in trade teams.Each had various sabbath = Trade industries all days of the week.

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Merchants of different

faiths band also together.

The Muslim Agricultural Revolution: Begins c.750 CE, in the time of Abbasid Caliphate, spcheck out of plants and also technology.

Crops come west from IndiaFood plants and Industrial plants.Crops that flourish in better heat.Brneed to Africa - Yield more product for a longer duration of the year.(Sugarcane, Rice, Spinach, Artichokes, Eggplants, Oarrays, Lemons, Limes, Bananas, Mangos, Coconuts, Cotton, Indigo, Henna)Technology SpreadsQanats- Underground watering canals from Persia.Allow plants to flourish in more warm (water can not evapoprice as a lot in underground canals).

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Qanats came from Persia throughout the Muslim Agrisocial Rdevelopment.

CONSEQUENCE: More differed diet in West --> Healthier

More food

Surplus = Population Growth + Specialization = Cities = Agriculture

Increase manufacturing of food, and cotton and dyes for trade.

Sharefarming approaches = Imverified methods + Increased manufacturing.

The Spreview of Trade with Islam: As Islam Spreads, so do trade relations.

- Spreview to North Africa through trade andAlmoravids.

- Spreview to sub-Saharan Africa via profession.

- Spreview to Southeastern Asia through trade &Sufi Mystics

Impact of theCrusades

Europeans accessibility Center Eastern riches for the initially time.Desire these riches for their elite.Increase profession through the Middle East.

Muslim result on South (India) and Southeastern Asia

India: Increase trade and also technical connections, especially withinDelhi Sultanate.

Key contributor inMuslim Agrisocial Revolution.Muslim conquests in India beginlate 7th century.11 - 12th centuryraids.New Muslim funding ofDelhi, facility of North Indian commerce.

Southeast Asia:

Sufi Mysticstake a trip via trading watercrafts, and also spreview Islam.Converting facilitates trade with Muslims.WHY?Less taxes, exact same language, same ideas and ethics.Southeastern trades seasonings and lumber.Abbasid trade relationships began with ports in Sumatra in Indonesia, and also spread from tbelow.Spreads to profession city of Malacca, trade center of Demak, and also Philippines.

CONSEQUENCE:The spreview of Islam to Southeastern Asia included more human being todar al-Islam, the civilization of Islamic human being. This addition consisted of new sellers and also Islamic profession centers, and also therefore increased profit.

Sub-Saharan Afrihave the right to Societies (Mali)

Islam in Africa:

North Africa part of Islam considering that Umayyads.Almoravids/Almohadis,a puremainder Islamic group raids and spreads into North Africa and also Spain in the11th century.Move as far southern asSub-Saharan Africa.Kings transform. -WHY?Islam reinforces their kingly power.Spread Islam to prevalent world.Increase Muslim trade connections -Trans-Saharan trade courses.

Ghana:4th-11th centuries

CAUSETax on the profession of gold and also salt, (and slaves) started advancement of Sub-Saharan empires in theSahel, the grasslands below the Sahara.

Gold, salt and also servants for weapons and textiles.Major trade city ofTimbuktu- located off Niger River.Use ofhybrid camels(introduced from Asia1st-5th century),caravanserai, andcamel saddlesto cross Sahara desert.

Mali:13th-15th centuries

CONTINUITYGold, salt, and servant trade.

Use ofTimbuktuas significant profession city.

Mansa Musa-1324, Islamic Mali Empire King, takespilgrimage to Mecca. Gives gold away alengthy the means, causesinflation- price of gold drops.Ibn Batuta- Traveled to Africa 1325-1349

CONSEQUENCE:Decline in profit of a key commodity.

Economy based on farming.Merchants create form little groups or partnerships of trade.Commercial cities thrive, begin to resemble North Africa.Expansion of Mali Empire = Greater defense for merchants = Increased trade and also profits.80% of people farm (rice, millet, sorghums, wheat, fruits and also vegetables)Feed human being, supply sellers.

Songhay:15th-16th centuries

CONTINUITYGold, salt, and slave trade.

Timbuktu

Capital on Niger River -GaoFarmers, herders, fishersFormed under SunniAliTrade relationships thrive as merchants and also pastoralists rise and also put up short articles.Expand boundaries and profession links1sixth century

Swahili Coast

By 13th century, Islamic trading short articles (city-states) build on east coastline of Africa.

Export cream color andslaves.Import pottery, glass, textiles, silks (Persia) and also porcelain (China).Access to inlandgold.Trade across to Southeastern Asia, up Red Sea and Persian GulfDhows, travel onmonsoonwinds.

ID Terms:

Mecca

Ka"ba

Medina

Muslim Agricultural Revolution

Qanats

Dar al-Islam

Wazirs

DhowsLateen Sails

Ayan

Sufism

Mansa Musa

Almoravids/Almohadis

Camels (Hybrid, Caravans, Saddle)

Caravanserai

Crusades

The Sahel

Realm of Ghana

Realm of Mali/Timbuktu

Songhay Empire

Swahili Coast

Oriental Empire(500-1453 CE)

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The Byzantine Realm in the time of its prime, under Justinian c. 527 CE.

East Roman funding ofConstantinople, commercial and also financial facility of Byzantium (on Mediterranean Sea and also Silk Road)Hub of items and also marketsTax traders that pass with.

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Constantinople was the Byzantine financial hub, and also many kind of sectors and trade ships traveled there.

Long-distance profession to China and the Islamic EmpireExtfinish trade courses northward to RussiaSilk Road, Mediterranean SeaTax device, Peasant AgricultureEconomy largely based off trade of produced high-end assets.Silk production modern technology taken from China (c. sixth century), textiles, etc.Import raw materials, then manufacture and offer forworth add.

Facilitating trade:

Byzant- Byzantine coin welcomed along the Silk Road.

Crusades(1095)- Access and desire for Middle Eastern items grows.

CONSEQUENCE: Increased trade between the two Europe and also the Center East.

CHANGE:

Arab Invasions cut earlier Oriental land and commercial reachDefense versus invasions was an economic burden.Economic downfall after Seljuk Turks invade in the11th century.Cut off connections to profession routes and also take over food flourishing locations, alleviate ability to create, mitigate surplus, decrease in production of luxury items.

Convariation of Vladimir I

Converts Kievan Rus" (Russia) to Christianity (Eastern Orthodox)Adds to Christian European manage --> Strengthens trades bonds between Russia and also ByzantinesContinues Oriental profession spreview northward.

ID Terms:

Constantinople

Crusades

The convariation of Vladimir I

Middle ages Western Europe(500-1500 CE)

Medieval Europe after the fatality of Charlemagne

Early Center Ages(500-1000 CE)

Pastdental nomads or subsistence farmingNo surplusNo technical, cultural, or commercial advancements.Couple of artisans = no luxury items for profession.Little long-remote trade.

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A Medieval Serf works the land also.

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Manorialism/European Feudalism- System of landlord - serf relations in Middle ages Europe. Exchange of labor for land access and armed forces defense.

Serfs under contracts via landlords, pay tax and pay food to landlords. Work for real estate (for free).Couple of complimentary land also owning peasantsPromotes subsistence farming and also lack of profession.WHY?No financial gains for difficult work-related, serfs remain attached to land also peasants.Barter - no use of money, straight exchange of items.

COMPARE: JAPAN

Japanlikewise had actually a feudal mechanism through serf-prefer peasants serving landlords.Both units were aggressive - European landlords rallied troops, Japanese lords regulated samurai.

CONTRAST:Serfs in Japan were much less limited, and also not organized to strict contracts choose in Europe

Ability to leave a manor and go to an additional (in Japan).

Charlemagne: Divine Roguy Emperor

Tries to unify Western EuporeSlight economic connection increaseDisintegrate after fatality.

Viking Invasions:Seagoing Scandinavian raiders, disrupt seaside West Europe

Rerelocate a part of what little bit wide range was in Western Europe at the timeHigh Middle Ages:Ultimately settle in Greenland also, trade with Western European people.Slave trade.

High Center Ages(1000-1500 CE)

Urban GrowthTradeMiddle Class (Guilds)

Tech Innovations:Around nine century

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Moldboard Plow
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Horse Collar
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Another Picture
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Horseshoe

Moldboard Plow- Heavy plows from for North EuropeDeeper cultivation in heavier soil.Increase efficiencyWorks more types of soil - more areas to plant crops.Three-Field System- System for rotating plants.Keeps land also even more productive.Geneprices bigger yield =Surplus= IncreasedSpecializationand also TradeHorse Collar/Shoes- Less hands-on labor, solid horses pull plows through more ease, deserve to pull via deeper, stronger, or harder groundLess labor, more crop yield (can prosper in even more places)New Crops - Grow much better in challenging soils, develop even more.Ex: Durum

All encourage manufacturing, specialization, and also later on commerce.

Growth of Commerce

Feudalism weakens as business grows.WHY?Power and also wealth are nowmoving to new middle class, and also not to feudal lords.Trade increase flourishes with investors.Population growth encourages profession.WHY?markets are created, commerce expands.Beginnings of Capitalism, Banking, and also CurrencyBanking - from Italy, Arabs. Currency - start withByzantBanking facilitates and promotes long-distance trade ventures.

Manga Carta- With the growth of business and profession, the feudal system weakened, as even more power raising went to merchants instead of the feudal lords. In1215, a charter was attracted up to ensurefeudal lordscivil liberties against the monarch. It was basically a method to keep the feudal lords in power, despite the commercial development and relocate away from feudal kingdoms.

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Hanseatic Organization Trade

Hanseatic League- An company of European cities for a commercial trading alliance.

Fight piracy on sea.Band/travel together or in "sea caravans" for defense.Start of trading suppliers.

Trade:

Damascus: Spices, RugsEurope: Timber, Grain (in north), manufactured metal and fabric (Italy, Genoa)China: SilkIndonesia: Spice, Sugar

(Artisan) Guilds- Association of people in the same company.

Make products for profession.Improve Manufacturing

Crusades

(1095)- Access to and also desire for Center Eastern items - enhanced profession in between the 2.

Italian port cities, choose Venice and also Genoa, prosper in power and also trade connections.

Economic Downfall

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The Bubonic Plague caused immense population decrease in Europe in the 14th century.

Bubonic Plague/Black Death- Plague in 14th century (1347-8 CE) - detrimental to population, kills about a 3rd of European populace.

Production decrease.Backward commercial development.

Little Ice Age- Coincides via Babsence Plague.

Climate change, cooler, many crops die.More difficult to grow food.Famine, no excess or commercial ventures.Population decrease.

Re-Rise

After the Little Ice Era and also Black Death passed, commerce started to climb aget.

Remaining laborers and also artisans could now charge even more for their work, because it was harder to uncover via the population decrease.

ID Terms:

Viking Invasions

Manorialism/European Feudalism

Serfs

Charlemagne

Moldboard plow

Three-area system

Horse collar/shoes

Magna Carta

Crusades

Hanseatic League

GuildsLittle Ice Age

Bubonic Plague/Black Death

The Americas

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The Aztec Empire

The Aztecs(1325-1520)

Conpursuit Empire - Conquered bordering realms that were forced to pay tribute: land also and also money, sources.

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Tenochtitlan was a great affluent Aztec city.

Tenochtitlan - Largest city and also profession center of Aztec Realm.

Technology that influences production:

Drainage units (emerged in Olmec) - drainpipe marshy lands, carry out even more farmable land also.

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Building chinampas.

Chinampas - Highly fertile beds of weed and mud to make farmable land also.Increases area for farming production, profits enhanced.Domesticated llamas to carry and also transfer items.

CONTRAST:Did not have actually many tamed animals, prefer in Afro-Eurasia (no horses, camels, cows, pigs, sheep, and so on.)

Money:

Sometimes use gold dust and cacao beans as currency.Mainly barter for profession.

Long-distance deluxe profession as much north as the Mississippi.

Government redistributes all tribute and land also.

Theuse of huguy sacrificedrives expansion, as the Aztecs are trying to find new sacrifices. It extends their realm of tribute nations, and also brings even more wide range to the economic climate.

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The Inca Empire

The Incas (1350-1527 CE)

Tribute-based areas.Redistribute tribute and also land among people.Realm made of many type of diverse regions and climates.No require for a lot profession external of Realm - WHY? variation of products keeps them self-adequate.

Technology to aid production:

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Waru-Waru
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Terraces in the Andes

Waru-Waru - Raised soil beds and canals.Prevent drought and frost.Grow potatoes and also quinoa well (staple crops for Inhave the right to society)Terracing - Allows for the mountainous Inhave the right to terrain to be farmed Different climates at various altitudes thrive various cropsAdds to self-sustaincapacity doe to variety of products and also ecounits.

Mit"a Labor System

Tribute mechanism in the create of labor.All neighborhoods and also world add.Men - Work on state or religious lands.Work on structures, irrigation units, and temples for elite.Women occupational as concubines or weavers.

"Technology" for profession within empire:

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Quipu

Quipu - Record keeping mechanism via knotted strings.Easier to keep track of traded goods.Quechua-Speaking - equivalent language in between Indeserve to regions facilitates straightforward trade and marketsTambos - Rest stops along roadways - used as inns and also storeresidences.

COMPAREComparable to Caravanserai in Afro-Eurasia.

Roads - facilitate passage with mountains

ID Terms:

Tenochtitlan

Use of Human being Sacrifice

Chinampas

Mit"a

Wary Waru

TambosQuechua

Quipu

China

Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE)

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China"s Sui Dynasty c. 609 CE

Conpursuit & ExpansionPush earlier wanderers - More lands to farm.Built canal system and Grand also Canal

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China"s Grand Canal this day.

Allow travel between China up and dvery own canal from North to South.Southern food (rice) goes north, north food (wwarmth, millet) goes southern.Forced peasant labor.Build cities and canals.

Flavor (623-907 CE)

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China"s Flavor Dynasty c. 700 CE.

CONTINUITIES: Use of Grand also Canal for North - South Exchange

Expand from Sui Dynasty - More location to create assets and food.Capital, profession center: Chang"anTemporary occupation of Korea in 668Opens profession.Tax scholars and landlords.

Break up aristocratic mansions - land also to cost-free peasants

Expand to Central Asia - reattach toSilk Road

Protect trade routes.Trade with Islamic World, main Asian wanderers and buddhist centers.

Imports: Horses, Persian Rugs, tapestries

Exports: silk, porcelain, paper

Trade through Southeast Asia:

Spices, eastern manufactured items.

Use of paper money begins (check out Song technology)

Chinese "Tribute" System:

Korea, and also later Vietnam pay tribute to China.

China pays tribute to neighboring pastoral nomad empires.

WHY? So that the nomads will not attack into Chinese area, remain at tranquility.

(See Tune Dynasty section for Song and also Flavor innovations that influenced the economic situation.

Song (960-1279 CE)

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Chinese Song Dynasty and its neighbors.

CONTINUITIES Song Dynasty proceed to pay trihowever to the Liao Dynasty of nomads, and also later the XiXia and the Jin.

Economic burden to fight off intrusions.

Tax scholars and also landlords.

Use of Grand also Canal for North to South Exchange

Specialized north and southern regions.ExchangeAgrarian expansion in southern.Peasants relocate southern and also job-related land.

Flavor Economic Connections

Similar imports/exportsContinue profession with Islamic societies, Europe, Southeast Asia, and also Central Asian wanderers.

Break up aristocratic mansions - land to totally free peasants

Government sponsored irrigation projects to rise agricultural production

Jin Consearch - Up to Yangzi River (1115 CE)

Move capital and financial hub to Hangzhou (1167-1279)

Technology to Increase Production:

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China relied on rice development in south, and also wwarmth in north.

Many type of Chinese had actually to farm, as thriving rice was labor extensive.

Champa Rice - Faster thriving, drought resistant, much better yielding rice from Vietnam.Can be grown more locations.Increases yields.More artisans and also sellers - WHY?less human being have to farm, bereason there is greater yield.Wheelbarrowhead - much less labor-extensive farming and harvesting.Dike and Damn - Water regulation for plants.

Technology that facilitates profession and commerce:

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Chinese Junks
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Compass

Junks - Chinese ships through watertight bulkheads, sternshort article rudders. Deep hulls to carry many kind of products. Dominant pressure in Asian seas.Stern rudder = Can steer up canals.Banking - Cashing of paper money, or chinese crmodify vouches.Flying/Paper Money - Chinese crmodify vouchers (paper), reconsidered at end of voyage.Less most likely to be stolen, lightCompass - Aids in sea navigating, allows for farther and much longer travels, and finding shorter routes.Gunpowder - Protects watercrafts, plus a traded commodity (both the powder itself, and the weapons)Abacus - Merchants count their profits.

Local industries in major towns - offer farm, artisan, and foreign products.

Government supervises to safeguard.

Guilds of artisans of sellers with very same specialty product.

Manufactured Products include: silk, ceramics textiles, iron, steel.

Yuan (Mongol) (1279-1368 CE)

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Mongol Yuan Empire in China

Mongols conquer Track China in 1279 - Kubilai KhanCapital relocated to trade facility of Dadu (Beijing)Cities and sedentary life flourish, urban development.

Overseas expeditions to conquer Japan all fail.

Mongols made efforts to:

Improve transportationExpand supply and usage of paper money.

Mongols emerged navy, offered it to defend sea routes.

Tradecontinues- within Mongol Empire and external it, sellers travel from much away. Continued profession with Europe.

EX: Marco Polo travebrought about Yuan China (Hangzhou) 1271-1295.

Ming(1368-1644 CE)

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Ming Dynasty map.

Chinese overthrow Mongols in 1368 CEExpand also into Central Asia, press Mongols north.Regain tribute payments from Korea, Vietnam and also TibetState-sponsored trade expeditions.Typically hug coast.Imverified compass and also maps, endeavor a little father away.Southern Asia, Afrideserve to East Coast, Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, Red SeaChina + Copper Coins - Exchange for regional items (and also exotic animals from Africa)Zheng He - Muslim admiral, leads Chinese profession explorations. Eunuch in Chinese Court.Brings gifts and also troops on explorations.Expeditions halt in 1433 CE, as well costly via fights against Mongols and advancement of brand-new resources.China limits external influence and also trade (Neo-Confucian Xenophobia)Continue profession with Southeast Asia, and interior profession.Price and also sectors for Chinese textiles and porcelain grows.

ID Terms:

Grand also Canal

Junks

Paper/Flying Money

Champa Rice

Flavor & Tune Technical Innovations

Chinese "Tribute" System

Compass

Zheng He

The Mongols

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The location managed under the Mongols

Nomadic Empire - Mongols are herders.

- Secondary Products (Meat, Milk, Skins, Furs, etc.)

- Grain + Vegetables with trade via sedentary societies.

- Also trade for jewelry, weapons, cloth.

- Horses

Extensive conquest by leader such as Chinggis Khan

Mass slaughter and devastation of those who perform not willingly join empire.

Conquered teams pay tribute, EX: Russia.

Capital relocated to Karakorum.

Revitalization of trade.Silk Roadway regulated by one power.Protection alengthy trade courses WHY? No warring groups along trade routes, one single leader and also one combined regulation code.Trade flourishes.Wealthy sellers and also commercial cities.Connection to Mediterranean and also Indian Ocean courses.Record Chinese artisans and also Muslim engineers.Produce artisan commodities, weaponry, and so on.

Technology Influencing Conpursuit (Conquered locations all fall under Mongol realm of protected trade)

Bow and ArrowSiege Weaponry - from ChinaAll help conquer the Mongol Realm, assist Mongol horseguys.

Possibly the cause of the Babsence Death in Europe.

Travels from China to Europe in Mongol profession along Silk Road, resulting in economic downloss in Europe.

Unit 4

European Exploration and Colonies

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CHANGES (From the Center Ages of Europe)

No FeudalismNo cites ---> Urban centers

CONTINUITY:Desire for Muslim goods, that they get access to during the Crusades.

Exploration:

Portugal starts expedition trfinish.

WHY? They wanted new profession routes to Indian by sea, approximately Africa.

First to explore because they are the farthest country West (closest to Indian by sea trade) - most basic possibility to obtain there.

Spain soon follows.

Portugal"s explorations funded by Prince Henry the Navigator.Portugal"s initially attempt to reach India - 1488, Dias, reaches Cape of Good HopeSecond attempt, Vasco de Gama, makes it to India around Africa in 1498.Some hostile Muslim sellers - Use gun-equipped boats (Gunpowder traveled from China) as pressure or intimidation.On the means, stops on Canary Islands, Azores, and also Madeirason the shore of West Africa- colonizes.First nests, exercise nests.Disease devasays native populaces.Brought slaves, beforehand creates of Modern Labor SystemsSugarChristopher Columbus - Italian navigator under Spain, Sails to Americas in 1492, thinks he has discovered Indian - lands on Hispaniola. Ferdinand Magellan - 1519, First perkid to circumnavigate the globe. Begins sailing west via Atlantic, goes about South America to Indonesia, claims Philippines for Spain, retransforms to Spain through Indian Ocean and also roughly Africa.Portugal had actually accessibility to Chinese port of Macao

Late 16th Century:

Britain, France and also the Dutch begin expedition.

Search for northwest passage - passage via the Americas to India and China, uncover Hudboy Bay area.1534 - French cross Atlantic, case Canada.17th century - British colonize North America"s eastern shore.

WHY EXPLORE? The motives:

Search of brand-new trade courses to Indian and China.Direct routes by sea.Avoid expensive overland also taxes.Avoid Muslim OttomansDesire for Asian high-end products.Portugal - desires to discover path roughly the tip of Africa.European rivalries.Desire to be the ideal fuels search for wealth.MercantilismDemand for items, especially silver.CapitalismMissionary ImpluseEspecially Catholic (Portugal + Spain)Loss of followers in Bubonic PlagueDesire to find brand-new followers.

CAUSE: TECH IMPROVES

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Maps
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Astrolabe
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Caravel

Technology that assisted in exploration:

MapsCompassesAstrolabeTrade Wind KnowledgeCaravel - Ships with deep hulls to bring goods. Sternshort article rudders, lateenager sails, and also water-tight bulkheads.CONTINUITIES - dhows and also junks.Money and also assistance (finance) from government.

New Trade Routes: All old intensify and grow.

Develop:

Around reminder of Africa to India - touches West Afrihave the right to coast.To the Americas - North and also SouthBetween West Africa and the Americas - Slave trade.Inside Indian Ocean

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Search for 3 G"s:

One isGOLD - raiding empires to search for gold and also silver.

WHY? Need wealth to usage as exports for profession for deluxe items of India, China, and also the Middle EastPotosi Mine - Mine found mid 16th century by Spanish - filled through SILVER.CONTINUITY Revive a stricter, harsher Inca Mit"a System - force Native Americas and also Afrideserve to slaves to work-related it.Africans - much better employees, disease resistant.Silver supplied as money, and also profession for luxury items in China.

Mercantilism: Capitalist financial concept.

World wide range is finite - Goal is to manage as a lot as you deserve to.Control raw products, and market made items (Value Add)Imports be worth less than exports, offer even more than you buy.Monopolies are good.Placed tariffs (profession tax) on every little thing.Expand also industries - Make certain tright here are guaranteed buyers for your products.Repress local manufacturing: EX: Britain and India

Joint Stock Company:

CONTINUITY:Expand also post-classic "joint" businesses. Hanseatic League, or Muslim, Christian, Jewish trade groups.

Distribute threat and also expenses.Increased middle course.Groups of negative have the right to put money together and invest.Colonization markets.Monopolies offered by governments to particular service providers.

British East India Company type of -Monopoly over trade in India, act as independent federal government in managed area.

Dutch East India Company - Monopoly over profession in Asia, act as independent government in managed area.

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Americas:

Francisco Pizzaro conquers Incas

Henan Cortez conquers Aztecs

CONTRASTS:

Slave based economic climate.Supply the mother country.Reflection of residence country - don"t keep aboriginal ideas or culture.Role of controlling companies.Overseas empire.

Encomienda System:

Feudal-likeBrutal mechanism of required work and labor.

Columbian Exchange: Exadjust of disease, crops, and livestock, goes both ways.New domesticated pets and also plants in each land - manufacturing increase, population expansion.

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European condition causes extreme death in AmericaEuropeans and servants relocate over ad work out in new nests.

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