The magnetic minute of a device actions the stamina and the direction of its magnetism. The term itself usually describes the magnetic dipole moment. Anything that is magnetic, prefer a bar magnet or a loop of electrical present, has actually a magnetic minute. A magnetic minute is a vector quantity, with a magnitude and also a direction. An electron has an electron magnetic dipole moment, created by the electron"s intrinsic spin residential or commercial property, making it an electrical charge in motion. Tright here are many kind of various magnetic forms: including paramagnetism, and also diamagnetism, ferromagnetism, and anti-ferromagnetism.

You are watching: Classify these atoms and ions as paramagnetic or diamagnetic.


Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism describes the magnetic state of an atom via one or more unpaired electrons. The unpaired electrons are attracted by a magnetic field due to the electrons" magnetic dipole moments. Hund"s Rule says that electrons must occupy eextremely orbital singly before any type of orbital is doubly lived in. This might leave the atom via many type of unpaired electrons. Due to the fact that unpaired electrons deserve to spin in either direction, they display magnetic moments in any type of direction. This capcapacity allows paramagnetic atoms to be attracted to magnetic fields. Diatomic oxygen, (O_2) is a good instance of paramagnetism (described through molecular orbital theory). The complying with video shows liquid oxygen attracted right into a magnetic field produced by a strong magnet:


Figure 2.7.1: As presented in the video, molecular oxygen ((O_2) is paramagnetic and is attracted to the magnet. Incomparison, Molecular nitrogen, (N_2), but, has actually no unpaired electrons and also it is diamagnetic (this principle is discussed below); it is therefore unimpacted by the magnet.

There are some exceptions to the paramagnetism rule; these issue some transition steels, in which the unpaired electron is not in a d-orbital. Examples of these metals include (Sc^3+), (Ti^4+), (Zn^2+), and also (Cu^+). These metals are the not characterized as paramagnetic: they are taken into consideration diamagnetic bereason all d-electrons are paired. Paramagnetic compounds sometimes display screen mass magnetic properties due to the clustering of the steel atoms. This phenomenon is recognized as ferromagnetism, but this home is not disputed here.


Diamagnetism

Diamagnetic substances are identified by paired electrons—except in the previously-questioned case of shift metals, tright here are no unpaired electrons. According to the Pauli Exclusion Principle which says that no 2 identical electrons might take up the very same quantum state at the very same time, the electron spins are oriented in oppowebsite directions. This reasons the magnetic areas of the electrons to cancel out; for this reason there is no net magnetic minute, and also the atom cannot be attracted right into a magnetic field. In truth, diamagnetic substances are weakly repelled by a magnetic field as demonstrated with the pyrolytic carbon sheet in Figure 2.7.2.

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How to tell if a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic

The magnetic develop of a substance deserve to be identified by studying its electron configuration: if it mirrors unpaired electrons, then the substance is paramagnetic; if all electrons are paired, the substance is diamagnetic. This procedure can be broken into four steps:

Find the electron configuration Draw the valence orbitals Look for unpaired electrons Determine whether the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic

Example 2.7.1: Chlorine Atoms

Step 1: Find the electron configuration

For Cl atoms, the electron configuration is 3s23p5

Step 2: Draw the valence orbitals

Ignore the core electrons and also emphasis on the valence electrons only.

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Step 3: Look for unpaired electrons

Tright here is one unpaired electron.

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Tip 4: Determine whether the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic

Since there is an unpaired electron, Cl atoms are paramagnetic (albeit, weakly).


Example 2.7.2: Zinc Atoms

Step 1: Find the electron configuration

For Zn atoms, the electron configuration is 4s23d10

Step 2: Draw the valence orbitals

classify these atoms and ions as paramagnetic or diamagnetic.