Presentation on theme: "UNIT IV Chapter 12 The History Of Life. UNIT 4: EVOLUTION Chapter 12: The History of Life I. The Fossil Record (12.1) A. Fossils deserve to create in a number of ways."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT IV Chapter 12 The History Of Life

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2 UNIT 4: EVOLUTION Chapter 12: The History of Life I. The Fossil Record (12.1) A. Fossils have the right to develop in several means

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3 1. Permineralization- minerals carried by water are deposited roughly or rearea the difficult structure Petrified wood

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4 2. Natural casts- create as soon as flowing water gets rid of every one of original bones, leaving impression in sediment. Minerals fill in the mold Archaeopteryx

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5 3. Trace fossils- document activity of organism. Include swarms, burrows, imprints of leaves, and footprints

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6 4. Amber-kept fossils- organisms trapped in tree resin that hardens into amber

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7 5. Preserved remains- form when whole organism becomes encased in product such as ice, volcanic ash, or immersed in bogs.

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8 B. Most fossils develop in sedimentary rock 1. Most widespread fossils outcome from permineralization 2. Best atmospheres for fossilization include wetlands, bogs, rivers, lakebeds, and floodlevels

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9 C. Only tiny percentage of living things come to be fossils

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10 D. Radiometric dating gives a precise estimate of fossil’s age 1. Relative Dating- estimate of date by comparing placement of fossils in rock layers.

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11 2. Radiometric dating- strategy utilizing organic degeneration price of unsecure isotopes

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12 a. Radiocarbon dating- Isotope of Carbon ( 14 C) supplied with half-life of 5700 years 1). Organisms consume carbon by eating and breapoint. 2). When organism dies, 14 C begins to decay 3) Look at proportion of 14 C to 12 C

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13 b. Determining Earth’s Period 1). Use decay of uranium to recognize age (lengthy half-life) 2). Earth’s age around 4.5 billion years

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14 II. The Geologic Time Scale (12.2) A. Index fossils are another tool to identify the age of rock layers.

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15 1. Index fossils- organisms that existed only in the time of specific spans of time over large geographic location 2. Estimate age of rock layers by fossils they contain

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16 B. The geologic time scale organizes Earth’s background 1. geologic time scale- depiction of the history of Earth a. Organizes by significant alters or events b. Uses evidence from fossil and also geologic records

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17 2. Divided right into three standard units of time a. Eras- lasts tens to hundreds of countless years. 1). Separated by periods of mass extinction 2). leads to periods of adaptive radiation of species b. Periods- a lot of widespread supplied units. Lasts tens of countless years c. Epochs-smallest units

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18 III. Origin of Life (12.3) A. Planet was exceptionally different billions of years ago 1. Planet was incredibly warm first 700 million years

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19 2. Atmospbelow created once cooled (no oxygen at first) 3. When cooled even more, water vapor condensed and also dropped as rain. 4. Organic compounds developed from inorganic products as soon as water was present

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20 B. Several sets of hypotheses propose exactly how life started on Earth 1. Organic Molecule Hypotheses a. Miller-Urey experiment (1953)- demonstrated that organic compounds might be made by simulating problems on early Planet

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21 b. Meteorite hypothesis- organic molecules may have actually arrived at Planet with meteorite or asteroid impacts

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22 2. Early Cell Structure Hypotheses a. Iron-sulfide bubbles hypothesis- organic molecules developed in chimneys of hydrothermal vents

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23 b. Lipid membrane hypothesis- advancement of lipid membranes vital step for beginning of life. 1).Lipid molecules spontaneously form membrane-enclosed spheres. 2). These created around organic molecules forming cell-like structures

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24 3. RNA as at an early stage genetic product a. hypothesis that RNA instead of DNA was original hereditary material b. RNA deserve to self-replicate

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25 IV. Early Single-Celled Organisms (12.4) A. Single-celled organisms adjusted Earth’s surconfront by depositing minerals

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26 B. Changed environment by offering off oxygen 1. 3.5 billion years back photosynthetic life evolved (cyanobacteria) 2. Higher oxygen levels in environment and also oceans permitted advancement of aerobic prokaryotes.

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27 C. Eukaryotic cells might have evolved via endosymbiosis 1. Endosymbiosis theory- one organisms resides within body of one more, and also both benefit from partnership

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28 a. Early mitochondria and also chloroplasts were as soon as straightforward prokaryotic cells taken up by bigger prokaryotes 1.5 billion years ago b. Based concept on truth that mitochondria and chloroplasts have their very own DNA and ribosomes

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29 D. The advancement of sexual reproduction brought about enhanced diversity 1. First prokaryotes and eukaryotes reproduced asexually

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30 2. Sexual remanufacturing boosts genetic variation which lets a populace adapt easily to brand-new conditions 3. First step in development of multicellular life.

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31 V. Radiation of Multicellular Life (12.5) A. One of most important transitions in history of life 1. First showed up in the time of Paleozoic era (544 million years ago)

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32 2. Huge diversity of pet species progressed a. At initially all life was uncovered in ocean b. Eventually life relocated onto land c. Dead continues to be of organisms from this era adjusted into coal and also petroleum

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33 3. Paleozoic Age ended through mass extinction

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34 B. Reptiles radiated during the Mesozoic era. 1. Age of reptiles 2. First mammals appeared 3. Period ended with mass extinction brought about by meteorite affect

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35

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36 C. Mammals radiated during the Cenozoic era

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37 VI. Primate Evolution (12.6) A. Humans share a prevalent ancestor through various other primates 1. Primates- category of mammals via flexible hands and feet, forward looking eyes, and enlarged brains family member to body size.

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38 2. Primate evolution- 2 primary branches a. Prosimians- earliest living primate group

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39 b. Anthropoids- human-like primates 1). includes hominids-all species of human lineage)

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40 2). Bipedal- 2 legged or upright walking caused evolutionary success

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41 B. Tbelow are many kind of fossils of extinct hominids 1. Australopithecus afarensis (3 to 4 millions years ago in Africa)

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42 2. Homo habilis (2.4 to 1.5 million years ago) - “handy man”- used crude stone devices

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43 3. Homo Neanderthalensis (200,000 to 30,000 years ago)

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44 4. Homo sapiens- modern-day male

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45 C. Modern human beings occurred around 100,000 years ago 1. Evidence points to beginning in Ethiopia 100,000 years back 2. Person development was influenced by culture- devices are crucial markers in humale development 3. Increased skull and also brain dimension gave humans a selective benefit Australopithecus afarensis Homo habilisHomo neanderthalensis Homo sapiens

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46 Chapter 12 The History Of Life

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47 What proportion of all species that ever lived has end up being extinct? a.less than 1 percent b.approximate one-half c.more than 99 percent d.It is difficult to estimate.

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48 What proportion of all species that ever lived has actually come to be extinct? a.much less than 1 percent b.approximate one-half c.more than 99 percent d.It is impossible to estimate.

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49 Many fossils create in a.peat bogs. b.tar pits. c.sedimentary rock. d.the sap of primitive trees.

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50 Many fossils form in a.peat bogs. b.tar pits. c.sedimentary rock. d.the sap of primitive trees.

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51 The length of time forced for fifty percent of the radioactive atoms in a sample to degeneration is its a.half-life. b.loved one date. c.radioenergetic day. d.namong the above

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52 The size of time forced for fifty percent of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay is its a.half-life. b.family member date. c.radioactive day. d.namong the over

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53 How would certainly you day a sample of rock that you suspect as being one of the earliest on Earth? a.Use a radioactive isotope through a brief half-life. b.Use a radioenergetic isotope through a lengthy half-life. c.Use an index fossil. d.It is impossible to day exceptionally at an early stage rocks.

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54 How would you day a sample of rock that you suspect as being one of the earliest on Earth? a.Use a radioactive isotope via a short half-life. b.Use a radioenergetic isotope with a long half- life. c.Use an index fossil. d.It is difficult to day very beforehand rocks.

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55 The levels of division of the geologic time scale, from smallest to largest are a.periods, periods, and also dates. b.dates, durations, and also periods. c.periods, periods, and epochs. d.periods, dates, and periods.

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56 The levels of division of the geologic time scale, from smallest to biggest are a.ages, periods, and epochs. b.dates, periods, and also periods. c.durations, eras, and also dates. d.durations, dates, and ages.

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57 The Mesozoic is regularly referred to as the Age of a.Invertebrates. b.Vertebrates. c.Dinosaurs. d.Mammals.

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58 The Mesozoic is regularly referred to as the Period of a.Invertebprices. b.Vertebrates. c.Dinosaurs. d.Mammals.

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59 Earth"s a lot of current era is the a.Paleozoic. b.Mesozoic. c.Cenozoic. d.Precambrian.

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60 Earth"s a lot of current era is the a.Paleozoic. b.Mesozoic. c.Cenozoic. d.Precambrian.

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61 Why did seas not exist on Earth nearly 4 billion years ago? a.No water was existing. b.Water stayed a gas bereason Planet was extremely hot. c.Water existed as ice because Planet was incredibly cold. d.namong the over

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62 Why did oceans not exist on Planet virtually 4 billion years ago? a.No water was present. b.Water remained a gas bereason Earth was incredibly warm. c.Water existed as ice bereason Earth was incredibly cold. d.namong the above

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63 Miller and also Urey"s experiments attempted to simulate the conditions a.of Earth"s early on seas. b.of Earth"s at an early stage environment. c.of Earth prior to liquid water existed. d.deep inside Earth.

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64 Miller and also Urey"s experiments attempted to simulate the conditions a.of Earth"s early on seas. b.of Earth"s early on environment. c.of Earth prior to liquid water existed. d.deep inside Planet.

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65 A crucial condition for the development of life on Earth was a.the visibility of DNA. b.complimentary oxygen. c.the development of the ozone layer. d.liquid water.

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66 A necessary problem for the evolution of life on Earth was a.the presence of DNA. b.free oxygen. c.the development of the ozone layer. d.liquid water.

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67 What perform proteinoid microspheres have in prevalent via cells? a.They have the right to save and release power. b.They contain DNA. c.They contain RNA. d.They are areas of organisms.

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68 What perform proteinoid microspheres have in widespread via cells? a.They have the right to save and release energy. b.They contain DNA. c.They contain RNA. d.They are areas of organisms.

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69 The endosymbiont theory proposes that eukaryotic cells emerged from a.single prokaryotic cells. b.multicellular prokaryotes. c.neighborhoods of prokaryotes inside a bigger cell. d.communities of eukaryotes inside a larger cell.

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70 The endosymbiont concept proposes that eukaryotic cells arose from a.single prokaryotic cells. b.multicellular prokaryotes. c.areas of prokaryotes inside a bigger cell. d.neighborhoods of eukaryotes inside a bigger cell.

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71 What was the response of various groups of early on organisms as soon as oxygen levels climbed in the atmosphere? a.extinction b.a move right into airless habitats c.the development of metabolic pathmeans that provided oxygen for respiration d.all of the above

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72 What was the response of miscellaneous groups of beforehand organisms once oxygen levels rose in the atmosphere? a.extinction b.a relocate into airmuch less habitats c.the evolution of metabolic pathmethods that offered oxygen for respiration d.all of the above

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73 The initially organisms were a.prokaryotes. b.eukaryotes. c.proteinoid microspheres. d.microfossils

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74 The first organisms were a.prokaryotes. b.eukaryotes. c.proteinoid microspheres. d.microfossils

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75 A exceptionally large mass extinction arisen at the finish of the a.Precambrian. b.Cambrian Period. c.Paleozoic Era d.Quaternary Period.

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76 A incredibly big mass extinction arisen at the finish of the a.Precambrian. b.Cambrian Period. c.Paleozoic Era d.Quaternary Period.

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77 The process by which 2 species evolve in response to each other, for instance, a flower having a framework compatible with the body framework of its pollinator, is an example of a.convergent development. b.adaptive radiation. c.codevelopment. d.punctuated equilibrium.

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78 The process by which 2 species evolve in response to each various other, for instance, a freduced having a structure compatible via the body structure of its pollinator, is an example of a.convergent development. b.adaptive radiation. c.coevolution. d.punctuated equilibrium.

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79 A mass extinction would certainly encourage the fast advancement of surviving species a.by transforming developmental genes. b.by opening environmental niches. c.because it killed all organisms that had actually coevolved. d.bereason it spared all organisms that had developed convergently.

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80 A mass extinction would certainly encourage the quick evolution of enduring species a.by transforming developpsychological genes. b.by opening eco-friendly niches. c.because it eliminated all organisms that had coprogressed. d.bereason it spared all organisms that had evolved convergently.

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81 A single species that has actually developed right into a number of different develops that live in various ways has gone through a.adaptive radiation. b.codevelopment. c.punctuated equilibrium. d.mass extinction.

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82 A single species that has actually evolved into a number of various develops that live in various means has actually gone through a.adaptive radiation. b.codevelopment. c.punctuated equilibrium. d.mass extinction.

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83 Two patterns of macroevolution that involve exceptionally quick response to environmental pressures are a.convergent development and also transforms in developmental genes. b.coadvancement and also convergent advancement. c.adaptive radiation and transforms in developpsychological genes. d.punctuated equilibrium and mass extinction.

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84 Two trends of macrodevelopment that involve very quick response to ecological pressures are a.convergent advancement and also transforms in developpsychological genes. b.coadvancement and convergent evolution. c.adaptive radiation and alters in developmental genes.


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d.punctuated equilibrium and also mass extinction.

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