The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 and also is a measure of acidity or alkalinity. In the classroom or lab, tright here are many type of benefits to understanding the pH of a substance. The pH have the right to be provided to identify what a substance is and also exactly how it will react under certain situations.

You are watching: Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration for an aqueous solution that has a ph of 3.45.


It have the right to likewise be used to identify the concentration of hydronium or hydroxide ions, which can cause determination of the concentration of other ions in the solution.



The following equation is a basic and beneficial staple of chemisattempt and also deserve to be viewed as rather of a pH calculator. If you know the pH, you can deal with for the hydronium ion concentration and also conversely, you can settle for pH if you know the concentration of hydronium ions.


pH = − log The pH of a solution is equal to the negative logarithm of the hydronium ion (H3O+) concentration.


In a 1.0 L sample of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) the concentration of hydronium ions is 1 × 10-1. What is the pH?


Use the ion-product continuous for water (Kw).Kw = 1 × 10-14 = × = (1 × 10-14 ) /


Although the rules for determining considerable numbers are fairly rigid, calculations for pH are rather unique in that just the numbers to the right of the decimal are counted as sig figs!


The acid dissociation continuous is the percent of an acid in the ionized form. Weak acids have actually small Ka values bereason the majority of the acid remains undissociated. Carbonic acid is a good instance of a weak acid. The equilibrium equation is:


Because carbonic acid is a diprotic acid, and also have the right to donate an additional H+, the second dissociation equation is:


Strong acids have huge dissociation constants; they completely dissociate in water. Nitric acid is an excellent instance of a strong acid. The equilibrium equation for nitric acid is:


The Ka value of 40 is dramatically even more significant than that of carbonic acid, which was 4.3 x 10-7.

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Some scientists like to usage the formula H3O+ rather of H+, to display that the positive hydrogen atom commonly combines via a neutral water molecule (H2O) to form H3O+, well-known as the hydronium ion.

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