What are the Key Types of Depreciation Methods?

There are numerous forms of depreciation expenseDepreciation ExpenseWhen a permanent ascollection is purchased, it have to be capitalized instead of being expensed in the audit period it is purchased in. and also different formulas for determining the book valueBook ValuePublication value is a company’s equity value as reported in its financial statements. The book value number is typically viewed in relation to the of an asset. The the majority of common depreciation methods include:

Straight-lineDouble decreasing balanceUnits of productionSum of years digits

Depreciation expense is provided in accountancy to alfind the price of a tangible assetTangible AssetsTangible assets are assets through a physical develop and that hold value. Instances include residential property, plant, and also tools. Tangible assets are over its useful life. In various other words, it is the reduction in the value of an ascollection that occurs over time because of usage, wear and tear, or obsolescence. The four major depreciation approaches pointed out over are explained in information below.

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1. Straight-Line Depreciation Method

Straight-line depreciationStraight Line DepreciationStraight line depreciation is the a lot of generally offered and also simplest approach for allocating depreciation of an ascollection. With the directly line is an extremely widespread, and also the simplest, method of calculating depreciation cost. In straight-line depreciation, the cost amount is the very same yearly over the useful life of the asset.

Depreciation Formula for the Straight Line Method:

Depreciation Expense = (Cost – Salvage value) / Useful life


Consider a piece of equipment that prices $25,000 through an approximated valuable life of 8 years and a $0 salvage value. The depreciation price per year for this devices would certainly be as follows:


Depreciation Expense = ($25,000 – $0) / 8 = $3,125 per year


2. Double Declining Balance Depreciation Method

Contrasted to other depreciation approaches, double-declining-balance depreciationDouble Declining Balance DepreciationThe double decreasing balance depreciation method is a form of sped up depreciation that doubles the regular depreciation technique. It is results in a bigger amount expensed in the earlier years as opposed to the later on years of an asset’s valuable life. The strategy shows the fact that assets are generally even more productive in their early on years than in their later on years – additionally, the handy reality that any type of ascollection (think of buying a car) loses more of its worth in the first few years of its use. With the double-declining-balance strategy, the depreciation aspect is 2x that of the straight-line price technique.

Depreciation formula for the double-decreasing balance method:

Periodic Depreciation Expense = Beginning book value x Rate of depreciation


Consider a piece of residential property, plant, and tools (PP&E)PP&E (Property, Plant and also Equipment)PP&E (Property, Plant, and also Equipment) is just one of the core non-existing assets uncovered on the balance sheet. PP&E is influenced by Capex, that prices $25,000, with an approximated useful life of 8 years and a $2,500 salvage value. To calculate the double-decreasing balance depreciation, put up a schedule:


The information on the schedule is explained below:

The beginning book value of the asset is filled in at the beginning of year 1 and also the salvage value is filled in at the end of year 8.The rate of depreciation (Rate) is calculated as follows:

Expense = (100% / Useful life of asset) x 2

Expense = (100% / 8) x 2 = 25%

Note: Due to the fact that this is a double-decreasing method, we multiply the price of depreciation by 2.

3. Multiply the price of depreciation by the start book value to recognize the price for that year. For instance, $25,000 x 25% = $6,250 depreciation expense.

4. Subtract the expense from the beginning book worth to arrive at the finishing book value. For example, $25,000 – $6,250 = $18,750 finishing book value at the end of the initially year.

5. The ending book worth for that year is the start book worth for the following year. For instance, the year 1 ending book value of $18,750 would certainly be the year 2 beginning book worth. Repeat this until the last year of advantageous life.


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3. Units of Production Depreciation Method

The units-of-manufacturing depreciation approach depreciates assets based on the total variety of hours supplied or the complete number of devices to be developed by using the ascollection, over its valuable life.

The formula for the units-of-manufacturing method:

Depreciation Expense = (Number of systems developed / Life in variety of units) x (Cost – Salvage value)


Consider an equipment that prices $25,000, through an approximated full unit manufacturing of 100 million and also a $0 salvage worth. During the initially quarter of task, the machine created 4 million units.


To calculate the depreciation price using the formula above:

Depreciation Expense = (4 million / 100 million) x ($25,000 – $0) = $1,000


4. Sum-of-the-Years-Digits Depreciation Method

The sum-of-the-years-digits method is among the sped up depreciation methods. A higher price is incurred in the early years and also a lower expense in the last years of the asset’s helpful life.

In the sum-of-the-years digits depreciation methodAccountingOur Accounting guides and also resources are self-study guides to learn bookkeeping and finance at your very own pace. Browse numerous guides and also resources., the staying life of an ascollection is separated by the amount of the years and then multiplied by the depreciating base to recognize the depreciation price.

The depreciation formula for the sum-of-the-years-digits method:

Depreciation Expense = (Remaining life / Sum of the years digits) x (Cost – Salvage value)

Consider the adhering to example to more quickly understand also the concept of the sum-of-the-years-digits depreciation method.


Consider a piece of equipment that costs $25,000 and also has an approximated helpful life of 8 years and a $0 salvage value. To calculate the sum-of-the-years-digits depreciation, put up a schedule:


The indevelopment in the schedule is defined below:

The depreciation base is constant throughout the years and also is calculated as follows:

Depreciation Base = Cost – Salvage value

Depreciation Base = $25,000 – $0 = $25,000

2. The staying life is simply the staying life of the ascollection. For instance, at the beginning of the year, the ascollection has actually a remaining life of 8 years. The following year, the asset has actually a continuing to be life of 7 years, etc.

3. RL / SYD is “staying life divided by amount of the years.” In this instance, the ascollection has actually a beneficial life of 8 years. Therefore, the amount of the years would certainly be 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 = 36 years. The continuing to be life in the beginning of year 1 is 8. Therefore, the RM / SYD = 8 / 36 = 0.2222.

4. The RL / SYD number is multiplied by the depreciating base to recognize the cost for that year.

5. The same is done for the complying with years. In the start of year 2, RL / SYD would be 7 / 36 = 0.1944. 0.1944 x $25,000 = $4,861 price for year 2.


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Summary of Depreciation Methods

Below is the summary of all 4 depreciation methods from the examples over.


Here is a graph mirroring the book value of an ascollection over time via each different technique.

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Here is an introduction of the depreciation expense over time for each of the 4 kinds of expense.


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