Alternative titles: Archaea, archaean, archaebacteria, archaebacterium, archaeobacteria, archaeobacterium, archaeon
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Key People:Carl Woese...(Show more)Related Topics:IgnicoccusEuryarchaeotaThaumarchaeotaPyrodictiumPicrophilus...(Show more)

archaea, (doprimary Archaea), any of a team of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells absence a defined nucleus) that have actually distinctive molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the various other, even more influential group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms, including plants and animals, whose cells contain a identified nucleus). Archaea is derived from the Greek word archaios, meaning “ancient” or “primitive,” and also indeed some archaea exhilittle attributes worthy of that name. Members of the archaea include: Pyrolobus fumarii, which holds the upper temperature limit for life at 113 °C (235 °F) and was found living in hydrothermal vents; species of Picrophilus, which were isolated from acidic soils in Japan and are the the majority of acid-tolerant organisms known—qualified of growth at about pH 0; and also the methanogens, which create methane gas as a metabolic by-product and are discovered in anaerobic settings, such as in marshes, warm springs, and also the guts of animals, including people.

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In some systems for classifying every one of life, the archaea constitute one of three excellent domain names of living creatures. In 1977 American microbiologist Carl Woese, on the basis of analyses of ribosomal RNA, proposed that the prokaryotes, long considered to be a single team of organisms (essentially, the bacteria), actually consist of 2 separate lineeras. Woese dubbed these two lineages the eubacteria and also the archaebacteria. These names were ultimately readjusted to bacteria and also archaea (the archaea being distinctly different from bacteria), however Woese’s dividing of the prokaryotes into two teams has actually remained, and also all living organisms are now thought about by many kind of biologists to fall right into one of three excellent domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Further molecular analysis has actually presented that domajor Archaea consists of two significant subdivisions, the Crenarchaeota and also the Euryarchaeota, and one minor ancient family tree, the Korarchaeota. Other subdepartments have actually been proposed, including Nanoarchaeota and also Thaumarchaeota.